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The history of Eritrea: From the first documents to Munzinger - since 1945 50 years fight between colonialist powers and super powers for the own right

How Eritrea had almost been a Swiss colony - how the white "civilization" drives other populations into the ideological fight between capitalism and communism and is destructing them - the destructive role of Italy, England, Russia and Israel with the "USA" and Ethiopia against Eritrea because of a "horn"

by Michael Palomino (2007)

Map: The
                            position of Eritrea Map: The different ethnic groups in
                              Eritrea: Afar, Bilen, Hedareb, Kunama,
                              Nara, Rashaida, Saho, Tigre und Tigrinya.
Map: The position of Eritrea
vergrössernMap: The different ethnic groups in Eritrea: Afar, Bilen, Hedareb, Kunama, Nara, Rashaida, Saho, Tigre und Tigrinya.



-- Eritrea. Geschichte und Gegenwart eines Konflikts [History and present times of a conflict]. Edition SUKE, Schwyzerstr. 12, 5430 Wettingen
-- Alex Capus: Munzinger Pascha. Novel. Diogenes. Zurich 1997
--- www.ertra.com

These ethnic groups had to get systematically humiliated, enslaved and robbed, 1880-1990 more or less without any break - directly or indirectly:

Frau der Ethnie der Afar in Eritrea
Frau der Ethnie der Bilen in Eritrea
Frau der Ethnie der Hedareb in Eritrea
Frau der Ethnie der Kunama in Eritrea
Frau der Ethnie der Nara in Eritrea
Frau der Ethnie der Rashaida in
Frau der Ethnie der Saho in Eritrea
Frau der Ethnie der Tigre in Eritrea
Frau der Ethnie der Tigrinia in

Is there a compensation?

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1. Comment
2. General data about Eritrea
3. First history of the territory of Eritrea
4. Eritrea under Werner Munzinger and under the trade companies from Europe
5. Misogynist customs in Eritrea with mutilation of babies and girls before the fight for liberty
6. Italian colonialist exploitation in Eritrea
7. Victory of the British army in 1941 against the Italian army - and further exploitation - England dismantles all industries
8. Eritrea within the calculus of power after 1945: The strategic greediness at the "horn of Africa"
9. The fight for liberty for 30 years about Eritrea against the super powers 1958-1990 - the underground organizations

10. Alliance between Ethiopia and Israel, with the "USA", with the "Soviet Union"
10.1. In 1962 Eritrea is occupied and 14th Ethiopian "province"
10.2. Rise to power of Mengistu in Ethiopia
10.3. First unity congress of the EPLF
10.4. Ethiopian invasion with Soviet and Cuban help
10.5. Second unity congress of the EPLF

11. Military victories of the EPLF against the troops of Ethiopia since 1988 - Ethiopia under Mengistu is again allying with Israel
12. Overthrow and corruption in Ethiopia with Israel after 1990 - recognition for Eritrea

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1. Comment

The detailed chronology shows how a "development country" is created: The culture is "detected" in which a little Swiss group with Werner Munzinger plays a certain role. Then the Eritrean culture is destroyed and enslaved by the Italian occupation. Since 1941 Eritrea is robbed by the English occupation. At the end before the withdrawal from Eritrea in 1945 Great Britain  is dismantling fast all industries and factories.

Since 1948 Eritrea is a target of capitalist an communist forces at the "horn of Africa" and is put into a 50 years long war with super powers and the neighbour Ethiopia, and with the racist militaries of Israel of the 1960ies and 1980ies who are agitating in an alliance with the Ethiopian dictators. Napalm bombs, massacres, prohibitions of languages, hunger as tactics etc.

Only in 1997 Ethiopia stops the last attacks against Eritrea.

Did anybody say anything about compensation?

"Development aid" is for nothing when the White man is not capable to see it's guilt at last. Since 1945 Europe was celebrating economic growth for 30 years, and at the same time, Africa and Asia suffered the heaviest destructions...

Michael Palomino
1997 / 2003 / 2005

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2. General data about Eritrea

Eritrea has got a moderate and mild climate with two rainy seasons (SUKE, p.14). Main town is Asmara on 2400 m height with a comfortable Mediterranean climate (SUKE, p.15). The cultures are organized patrilinearly excepted the Kunama, which is organized by the mother's right (matrilinear) (SUKE, p.17).

                      von Eritrea
Map from Eritrea
Eritrea is celebrating two "national holidays":
--  8th March: the international women celebration day
--  1st September the national holiday (SUKE, p.20).

In Asmara there are traditional coffee ceremonies (SUKE, p.21).

The outstanding geography of Eritrea is shown by the following maps:

                            map with height indications
Map of
                            Eritrea with the indication of rain
Map with
                            the Eritrean provinces
vergrössernEritrea map with height indications
vergrössernMap of Eritrea with the indication of rain quantities
vergrössernMap with the Eritrean provinces

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3. First history of the territory of Eritrea

3d century before Chr.
In Egypt Beja Bedouins appear and are moving to North West Eritrea: First human settlements have Nilotic origin.
(SUKE, p.24)

Since the pharaonic times gold mines are operated in Eritrea.
(SUKE, S.197)

2d century before Chr.
Semitic ethnicities come over the Red Sea and are establishing in the today Eritrea and in Tigray different city states.
(SUKE, p.24)

                      with Tigray with Aksum, Ethiopia
Map with Tigray with Aksum, today Ethiopia

2d century BC until 3d/4th century AD
On the soil of the the today province Tigray is developing the kingdom of Axum, which is said to be the third biggest kingdom of the world in the 3d to the 4th century after Christ.
(SUKE, p.24-25).

4th cent.
The king of Axum adopts the Christian belief
(SUKE, p.25)

6th cent.?
Collapse of the kingdom of Axum
(SUKE, p.222)

710-14th cent.
Within the first Islamic expansion the Beja Bedouins convert to Islam, destroy the port of Adulis and in the following times they are setting up five independent kingdoms which are dominating Eritrea and the Sudanese coast until the 14th century.
(SUKE, p.25)

[According to the latest chronology research (headword "Chronologiekritik") the world chronology is at least 298 years too long. The whole time of Charles the Great seems to be invented by monks to have a good history of the church. By this the year 710 would be in fact the year 412. Other research teams about chronology mean the world chronology would be even 1000 years shorter, 1000 years would be lied and all developments processes would have been much faster].

14th -middle of 15th cent.
The Eritrean highlands are temporarily under the rule of Amhara.
 (SUKE, p.222)

14th-19th cent.
Pre-colonial times in Eritrea
These times get characterizes by religious schools:
The orthodox and the Islamic church are forming little elites by priests and sheikhs. But with this the system is contra productive:

-- priests and sheikhs are controlling the population in it's inexperience
-- there is missing the basic formation and the basic knowledge in the population.

By this there comes up a fatalist mentality within the population which accepts the suppression and the exploitation as a destiny and from God wanted (SUKE, p.120).

15th-19th cent.
Ethiopian-Portuguese trials for occupation fail - Turkish occupation
-- Ethiopian and Ethiopian-Portuguese trials for an occupation of Eritrea fail several times
-- Turkish armies occupy several times the coast of Eritrea and territories in the inner country, in certain parts of the Sahel province until the 19th cent. (SUKE, p.25)

The highlands of Eritrea stay independent or has to pay tribute at the provinces of Tigray (SUKE, p.222).

15th cent.
Frontier between the kingdom Medri-Bahri (territory on the sea) and Ethiopia is the river Mereb.
(SUKE, p.25)


16th-end of 19th cent.
Ethiopia does not exist
Ethiopia does not at all exist as a political unit, as an Ethiopian Reich: There are several parts which are independent Reichs (SUKE, p.222).

                              James Bruce
James Bruce, portrait

Fights between Ethiopia and Eritrea
The Scottish researcher James Bruce describes Eritrea and Abyssinia as different countries which are often combating each other (SUKE, p.25).

19th cent.
In Ethiopia several kings are governing at the same time with an inconsistent "foreign policy"
(SUKE, p.222)

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4. Eritrea under Werner Munzinger and under the trade companies from Europe

Werner Munzinger in Cairo
Werner Munzinger from Olten, son of a Federal councilor Josef Munzinger, is for a study stay in Cairo which is Turkish at that time (financed by the father). Werner Munzinger is speaking Arab and Hebrew fluently (Capus, p.46).


                                Munzinger, Portrait
Werner Munzinger, Portrait

Werner Munzinger for Dupont on expedition in the Red Sea
Werner Munzinger accepts a mission of the company Dupont & Cie.: He shall investigate the markets around the Red Sea for the company and shall investigate possibilities of commerce for rubber, myrrh, cotton, pearls, mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, also food like rice, dates, coffee, and pepper.

In Arab clothes, the "Galabiya", Munzinger is going to Suez at the Red Sea. The iron containing stones of the coast are shining red in the sunset glow (Capus, p.53-54, 59).

Werner Munzinger's arrival at the markets: Mecca pilgrims - slavery - the reports for Dupont
At the port of Janbo Werner Munzinger is watching Mecca pilgrims who are washing themselves in the sea and only with a towel, without hat and barefooted, are making their pilgrimage to Mecca. Munzinger is detected as a "Christ" on the market and is threatened.

On the further trip Munzinger can notice slave ships with black girls for the Arab harems and ships with black men for the Turkish army.

For the company Dupont he reports goods and prices from every market place (Capus, p.68-70).

Werner Munzinger as a merchant at Massawa / Massaua (Eritrea): Trade city for products and slaves
Werner Munzinger lands in Massaua, the most important port town of Abyssinia, planted on an island in front of the continent.

Map of
                              Eritrea with Massawa / Massaua
    Map of Eritrea with Massawa / Massaua

Massaua is a merchant junction of African caravans for the commerce with slaves, coffee, ivory, and gold for commercial ships from Arabia, India and China. Fresh water does not exist and diarrhea is the consequence. Dupont instructs Munzinger to stay there 1 year (Capus, p.71-76).

Werner Munzinger's trip to Keren
When there are difficulties in delivery of the caravans Dupont threatens to close down the branch. Munzinger is making a trip to Keren with his servants on donkeys to purchase the goods directly. By this he gets to know his future wife (Capus, p.84-89).

Werner Munzinger dismissed - research plans in Eritrea
Werner Munzinger is dismissed by Dupont. It's too late to be part of the funeral of his father.

But Munzinger has it's connections in Eritrea. He wants to perform further scientific works in Keren, about the Bogo people, and he wants to measure the land. Munzinger notes that the highlands of Keren have a climate like Italy, the soil would be excellent, and the inhabitants are noble and hospitable. The aim would be also to spread the Christian doctrine of charity in Keren.

By the salary from Dupont Munzinger purchases 2 guns, ammunition and seeds and announces to his family in Olten his return in 1-2 years (Capus, p.98-99).

Marriage of Munzinger and estate in Keren
Werner Munzinger marriages in Keren and becomes an important landowner. For the marriage ceremony the pair has to stay one month in the house and is fed by monks.

Munzinger has to afford servants now because of his richness and begins with measuring the land. He is also member of different expeditions (Capus, p.114-119; Capus, p.126-129).

The destructive blood vengeance in Eritrea - the first book of Munzinger
Munzinger finds out about the peoples of Eritrea that the blood vengeance is the main reason for poverty in the population in Eritrea. Munzinger publishes a little book: "About the customs and the right of the Bogos."  (Capus, p.136-139, 140).

Instruction by the Federal Council to Munzinger: Expedition
The Swiss Federal Council gives the instruction to Munzinger to be member of the German expedition to refind the scientist Dr. Eduard Vogel. Add to this Munzinger is obliged to undertake ethnical and geographic researches. Add to this Munzinger receives a "pocket money" of 5000 Swiss Francs.

The expedition starts with th German geographer Dr. Theodor Kinzelbach, 7 servants and 7 mules. The aim is the location of Wadai where Dr. Vogel had been the last time.

As the main difficulty turns out the malaria. On 22th December the expedition reaches Kassala (Capus, p.141-145, 147).


On 18th March 1862 the expedition reaches Khartoum (Capus, p.145-146).

Start from Khartoum on 6th April in the direction of Wadai, arrival at El Obeid on 20th April 1862.

The expedition has to wait for news from the sultan if they are allowed to enter Wadai. At the end further trip is not allowed. The reason for the ban of travel seems to be a horse: Dr. Vogel is described as a man who did not want to give away his grey horse to the sultan, and by this he was murdered (Capus, p.148-156).

Convalescence of Werner Munzinger in Switzerland
After his convalescence of Malaria Werner Munzinger comes back to Switzerland in October 1962 for recovery. He is gazing at the railway networks and railway stations which have been erected in the meantime. His brother Walther has become professor and is married and is working for a uniform obligation right (OR) (Capus, p.163-165).


Return of Munzinger to Keren: Munzinger is a middleman for Europe
Munzinger is acting on behalf of commerce companies in Eritrea. He is selling leopard furs and ivory which is sent to Europe (Capus, p.167-168).

Crusade plans of the Ethiopian general Kassa "Theodor II": against Mecca, Cairo and "liberation" of Jerusalem
Kassa is planning crusades of the Abessinian and European "Christendom" against the Islamic "hereditary enemies". By letter he is begging for military help at Victoria from England. But Victoria does not send him more than a revolver. Kassa had expected specialists who can found canons... (Capus, p.171).


Egyptian Massaua
The Egypt khedive purchases Massaua from the Turkish sultan (Capus, p.168).

Ethiopian general Kassa "Theodor II" takes European hostages
After Kassa has not receives English support for his crusade plans he takes "another" measure: He lets put into irons all Europeans in Ethiopia, all in all 64 people, to extort Victoria for military help. Beneath the captives is also the English consul Charles Duncan Cameron (Capus, p.171).

Liberation of the hostages with aid of British troops
Victoria sends British colonial troops to Massaua and gives the order to Munzinger to lead the British colonial troops in Abessinia against Kassa.

So, there are new military roads built up, elephants are carrying canons, village people flee. Together with the English marshall of the British colonial troops, Sir Robert Napier, the liberation is performed. Kassa is committing suicide (Capus, p.178-183).

June 1868
Withdrawal of the English troops from Abessinia
The last British soldier leaved Abessinia in the end of 1868. There are given 12 canons, 725 muskets and much ammunition to prince Kassai.

Prince Kassai conquers the throne from Theodor II. and from now on calls himself "John IV". Munzinger stays in Massaua (Capus, p.186).

The Assab bay is "bought" from an Italian
By order of the ship owner Raffaele Rubattino from Genoa the former mugger Giuseppe Sapeto is purchasing the bay of Assab from the Ben Ahmed brothers. The purchase is supported by the Italian government (SUKE, p.25).

Attempted assassination on Munzinger
Munzinger is hurt with four shoots, but not very serious (Capus, p.231).

Opening of Suez channel - Egypt occupation of Eritrea
The opening of the Suez channel has absolutely negative consequences for Eritrea because from now on Eritrea gets a "strategic significance" for world commerce and becomes the apple of discord at the "horn of Africa".

The troops from Egypt are the first and occupy Massaua with English support, also Keren and parts from central Eritrea (SUKE, p.25).

[By the Suez channel the Arab world looses any intermediate trade between India and Europe. The impoverishment begins and the fury against the "Christian" world; see Haarmann: Geschichte der arabischen Welt (History of the Arab world)].



Eritrea: Rise of Werner Munzinger as governor of Massaua and pasha aspirant
From the Egypt Khedive Ismail Munzinger is appointed for governor of Massaua and of the provinces at the Red Sea. Munzinger
-- possesses an own steamer
-- takes the Swiss expedition searcher Haggenmacher with him to Massaua
-- is residing with his wife Oulette-Mariam in a governor's palace (Capus, p.195).

Munzinger's new projects for Massaua
-- levee construction between the island Massaua and the continental land
-- project of a water pipe from the continental land to the island Massaua
-- telegraph line over Keren to Kouala, eventually to Cairo
-- project of a railway line along the coast (Capus, p.195).

Tax terror of Egypt against Munzinger's territories
Munzinger complains at khedive Ismail there are 1000 thaler yearly be wanted from the province Massaua, and this can only be paid by deprivations of the population (Capus, p.199).

                            Ismail, portrait
Khedive Ismail, portrait

Demand for an Anschluss by the Bogos
The Bogos who are under prince Kassai (John IV.) are demanding for an Anschluss to the province Massaua under Munzinger (Capus, p.200).

Authorization of projects
Khedive Ismail
-- approves the water pipe
-- the tax is not changed and stays very high
-- he welcomes the Anschluss of the Bogos, eventually also of the Belen and the Mareas
-- he sends a battailon of 800 men, 40 mitrailleuses and 4 mountain canons (Capus, p.200-201).

Munzinger's report to khedive Ismail: Expansion project against Ethiopia and Italy
Munzinger reports:

-- also the Belen and the Mareas have looked for shelter with him and by this are under Egypt protection, also a part of the Danakil

-- Munzinger suggests also to bring Beylul and Raheita "under control"

-- Munzinger suggests the annexation of the Aussa province and of the great salt plain: Aussa is a fertile, richly populated land on one of the great Abessinian trade routs and would be strategically important, so a big part of the caravans from Schoa and Galla could be drawn to Munzinger's ports.

At the same time Italy has the plan to "fix" it's presence between Beylul and Raheita.

That's why Munzinger is planning conspiratorially:
->> the territory shall be occupied under highest conspiracy
->> for this plan Munzinger demands a new ship at the same time (Capus, p.201-202).

Report of Werner Munzinger to Walter Munzinger in Switzerland: Social improvements and the construction of the levee
Munzinger reports:
-- the territory of the Bogos is occupied, the European newspapers have reported it
-- the tribal fights would have ended, as also the girl trafficking had been stopped
-- the levees from the board to the Massaua islands would be completed soon (Capus, p.202-203).

Munzinger complains at khedive Ismail the slave trade in Abessinia and lack of money to free slaves
Munzinger's report:
-- Munzinger is contradicting to be involved in slave trade, but he confirms abolition of slavery
-- John of Abessinia is going on with slave trade
-- the uncle of John of Abessinia had threatened Munzinger because slaved were freed by him
-- the coast line of 300 miles is never possible to control
-- the freed slaves have more problems than the slaves for whom the landlord has to look after
-- Munzinger complains that the freed slaves cannot be teached and clothed without additional funds (Capus, p.203-205).

Offer of the khedive: A post for Munzinger at Cairo

-- there is no money for schools and hospitals because other provinces would bring "gold, ivory and nigger soldiers in big quantities to our court", so at least for Munzinger will be possible a balanced budget

-- when the post is too heavy for him and he feels overcharged he can come to Cairo (Capus, p.205-206).

Massaua, the "Egypt provinces at the Red Sea": Munzinger is governing 2 mio. people
-- Werner Munzinger is governing over 2 mio. people from the Red Sea to the desert of Sudan
-- Munzinger supports the province with road constructioning, agriculture and drilling for water. European immigration is admitted (Capus, p.209, 211).

31.7. 1875
Trade route between Schoa and the Red Sea
Khedive Ismail gives the order to Munzinger to establish a trade route between Schoa and the Red Sea (Capus, p.209).

Munzinger's last sign of life
Munzinger is under way with 350 men and two canons in Tadjura Bay and as it seems he gets into serious trouble there (Capus, p.209).

War between the Massaua provinces and Ethiopia
Khedive Ismail writes a letter to Munzinger, that the deputy of Munzinger im Massaua, Arakel Bey, had attacked arbitrarily Abessinia with 1000 men. Almost all warriors of the Massaua republics have died and revenge is expected. So Ismail gives the order to Munzinger to keep calm (Capus, p.222-223)

December 1875 ca.
Murder to Munzinger and his wife (?)
According to a report of the servant Eduard Dor Werner Munzinger and his wife Oulette-Mariam have been assaulted and murdered. Munzinger dies without descendants. By this the Massaua provinces stay without Swiss successor (Capus, p.223-225).

Khedive Ismail quits
Ismail in Cairo has to resign because of too high depths at the European creditors. Successor becomes his son Tawfiq Pasha. Ismail is going into exile to Naples and Istanbul (Capus, p.226).

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5. Misogynist customs in Eritrea with mutilation of babies and girls before the fight for liberty

Racist treatment of nomad women

Report of the women barefoot doctor Zarah Ibrahim:

"Traditional rituals on the base of Islam are limiting the life of the nomad woman to her tent; no stranger may see her, and even to the husband she stays veiled. The life of a nomad woman is incredible cruel. For example during the menstruation she has to work in a sitting position over a sandpit. Sanitary pads they don't know.

Traditionally the nomad woman is never cooking for herself but only for the man to whom she gives the meal through the tent without looking at his face. A fair husband will not eat all and the little rest is for the wife who will eat later. Appropriate to all this the health condition of the wife is bad, ahead of time with 30 years she comes into the menopause, and her chance to survive the first birth is only 70 percent." (SUKE, p.71)

The women of the traditional nomads community are suffering under malnutrition and nutritional deficiency.

"In the traditional nomad community the man eats first, then the son, and the rest is for women and girls." (SUKE, p.112)

The women of the Hedareb nomads
The woman of the Hadareb is worth even less than the herds of camels or cattle:

"First the man was eating, then the sons, and the rest of the little meal had been barely enough to survive for the mother and the daughters." (SUKE, p.88)

Mutilation of clitoris on babies and infibulation (mutilation of the labia) on girls in Eritrea

The mutilation of clitoris on the female babies is performed on the 8th day after the birth (SUKE, p.73).

But with this the mutilation of the female sex has not finished yet. When the girl is 4 to 5 years old there is the "infibulation" (SUKE, p.73-74), the extraction of the two little labia (SUKE, p.112). Above all in the Islamic culture the ritual of the infibulation is the sign that the woman is the "possession" of the man (SUKE, p.73-74).

The procedure of an extraction of the labia on a 4-5 years old girl

[-- the girl is enchained] and the labia are extracted [under horrible pains and screams]
-- the vagina is sewed up by the big labia by needles up to a little whole. Incense, salt and sugar are means for "disinfection"
-- when the "midwife" means that the whole is not little enough the "operation" is repeated
-- then the thighs of the girl are corded up
-- after every birth the vagina is sewed up again until the woman will die because of the births resp. because of the "operations".

Consequences of the infibulation:
-- long lasting infections
-- paining scars
-- problems to urinate
-- infections and blood loss at the birth
-- fear from sex [and always pains during sex]

-- the mortality of the mothers is up to 25 % (SUKE, p.112-113)
-- complications of the births are infections or dead of the child, fistulas of the bladder, vagina or intestinal fistulas [unnatural connections between the organs].

By the mutilation the women with their health problems are suffering an insuperable social isolation (SUKE, p.75).

Girls: Marriage arrangement in the age of 9-12
Boys: Marriage arrangement in the age of approx.. 17

The marriage treaty is made between the two male heads of the family (SUKE, p.75). According to the tradition women over 30 are named not marriageable (SUKE, p.82).

Bride price
-- the bride price depends on the welfare and the reputation of the bride's family
-- the price for virgins is the highest -> rich, older men often marry very young women
-- Eritrean men of poor families are saving money for years or are emigrating to work for a good bride purchase
-- marriage festivities: The bride pair gets into depths for years (SUKE, p.75)
-- "Damoz marriage": In the towns there is possible a marriage on limited appointment with a fix wage for the woman (SUKE, p.76).

Law of succession
The daughters inherit the half of the sons (SUKE, p.76)
[and this is already much].

Divorce law
In Islamic law divorced women are more or less without any right and children basically stay with the father (SUKE, p.77).

Divorce reasons can be:
-- impotence and sterility of the man
-- long absence
-- heavy mistreatment of the body by the man
-- marriages asides without knowing of the wife.

Infidelity of the husband is not a reason for divorce. But "disobedience" and "lacking adaptiveness of the woman" are already reasons for divorce of the man (SUKE, p.77).

To the contrary the people of the Kunama has the matrilinear tradition (SUKE, p.78).

"Right of land" in Eritrea
The peoples of Eritrea are mostly sedentary farmers in the highlands. Herdsmen and nomads are the minority. Only the Blin are nomads in the highlands. In the lowlands and at the coastal territories the half nomad percentage is high.

signifies private property, this means family property. The land is bequested within the family, seldom also to women. With the succession goes a split. So, for modern cultivation any "risti"/"tsilmi"-land is very destructive.

is common property of the village and according to the needs of the families or of the village is newly leased every 7 years. But traditional families and rich farmers, the "restagna", get always more influence and can set themselves through against other families. Middle, little and landless farmers (farm workers who have come back, and lonely women) become dependent from the rich farmers. (SUKE, p.53-54)

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6. Italian colonialist exploitation in Eritrea

Map of Eritrea with Assab
          Map of Eritrea with Assab

Assab becomes Italian
The bay of Assab is "taken over" by Italian troops (SUKE, p.25).


Italy "purchases" the bay of Assab
The bay of Assab is purchased by the Italian state and is renames officially "Colonia di Assab". From now on Italy is showing an imperialist urge along the coast to the North (SUKE, p.26).

[The word "imperialist urge"
"Imperialist urge" means that white European officers want to be promoted by occupation of foreign land to get a higher salary at home in Europe and even to get eventually a "chocolate job" where one has nothing to do etc. For this purpose to get a "chocolate job" are made wars and 1000s of deads are accepted as long as it works. For the "USA" the same principle is working until today: Who was in war is promoted... (2005)]

Eritrea is occupied by Italians

1885 Italian troops occupy Massaua (SUKE, p.26; Capus, p. 227).

1888 Italian troops are occupying Keren and Asmara and occupy the whole Eritrean territory down to the border river Merbe (SUKE, p.26).

vergrössernEmperor Menilek II. of Ethiopia, portrait

                                Menilek II. of Ethiopia, portrait

vergrössernKing of Italy Umberto  1844-1900 King of Italy Umberto 1844-1900     
Change of power in Abessinia
Emperor John of Abessinia is overthrown in 1889 by Menelik II. (Capus, S.226).
[There can be found both names, Meilek and Menelik].

Treaty of Wichale (it. Ucciali) between Italy and the Ethiopian government over Eritrea
In this treaty between Italy and Ethiopia's emperor Menelik the Italian aspirations for Eritrea are "confirmed". The Italian king Umberto recognizes Menelik as emperor of Abessinia. Definition of the frontiers is performed by "international right" (SUKE, p.26).

1889 to the beginning of the 1930s
First phase of the Italian colonial government: The "opening"
Because of the moderate climate and of the fertile soil Eritrea is defined as a settler's colony. Construction measures are:
-- extension of infra structure
-- opening of the highlands of Asmara by roads, ports and railway lines
-- construction of an aerial cableway between Massaua and Asmara for the transport of goods
-- first industrial projects.

The number of Italian settlers remains under 5000 (SUKE, p.55).


The road from Massawa to Asmara
                              through the mountains (2003)
vergrössern The road from Massawa to Asmara through the mountains (2003)
["Opening" of Africa with road and railway construction
Add to this the Italian colonial power is building up a road system and a railway system to fasten importation and exportation. All colonial powers are building up road and railway systems in Africa which are serving to the white man. The English even are planning a railway line from coast to coast, from Sough Africa to Egypt and from the West coast to the Red Sea. It is clear who is enslaved resp. who has to work for free in these projects...].


1st January 1890
The proclamation of the colony of "Eritrea"
Eritrea is declared the first colony of Italy and is named "Eritrea" for the future (old Roman for "Red Sea") according to the Roman Empire (SUKE, p.26; St. Poscia: Eritrea - Colonia tradita. Rome 1989).

Discrimination of the native population
The native population is discriminated in the health and school departments. There is no industrialization policy, instead the farmers who are driven from their lands are torn to forced labour. Counter movements are founded (SUKE, p.27).

School education in the Italian Eritrea is only in Italian
In the school education system of the Italian colonialists in Eritrea lessons are given only in Italian. There is formed an elite which is placed in the colonial administration.

The consequences for the natives are catastrophic and in fact it's an incapacitation:

->> the broad population is living on without any primary school
->> at the same time the white man is showing his behaviour of dominance
->> Eritrean men and women are only given jobs as servants for the "sirs"

->> all in all by this discrimination there are only set up a few schools. The lessons which are given only in Italian contain some base operations, some hygiene and the history of the "big" Italians.

By this a rebellion against the colonial system
is coming up (SUKE, S.120-121).


since 1901
Italian gold mining in Eritrea
Beginning of gold mining in Mendri Zien, Adio Shumagle, Adi Konzi and Adi Nefas near Asmara by the Italian company "Societ
a  Eritrea per le Miniere d'Oro" [Society Eritrea for gold miners]  (SUKE, p.197).

since 1908
Beginning with irrigation systems in Eritrea
-->  the whole territory of Sh'eb is split-leveled
-->  with the irrigation through all the year 4 harvests per year are possible (SUKE, p.51).

Italian land law over Eritrea: "terra domeniale"
(SUKE, p.55)

Production of cotton and sisal (fibers for ropes and bags from leaves) in Eritrea
1911 to 1912: 11.075 centner (SUKE, p.197).


since 1922
Mussolini in Italy
Mussolini announces a "settlement of the bill of Adua" (SUKE, p.27)

7th February 1923
Second Italian land law over Eritrea: The Italian definition of robbery of land and disfranchisement of the rural population

As Italian state's property are considered in Eritrea:

-- all roads built by the government
-- all coasts, ports, beaches and forests
-- all telegraph and telephone lines and water courses
-- all land which belonged to tribes which have died out or is not in possession of other tribes or families

-- all land which belonged to former governments
-- forests and bush which is not reserved for the sedentary population
-- mines, winning territories, salt mines, other rights reserved
-- all land in the Eastern and Western lowlands which is not settled by a sedentary population (SUKE, p.55).

The consequences for the population are catastrophic:

->> around the half of the soil of Eritrea comes under control of the Italian colonial administration

->> breakdown of the native disea land system

->> the local rural population is forced into wage work

->> there is a development of a mechanized agriculture for export products as tobacco, coffee, cotton and citrus fruits with the employment of season workers

->> the influence of the capital changes the habits of the population: The people emigrate from their traditional village communities (SUKE, p.56-57).

1929: Sisal exportation is 686 centners (SUKE, p.197).


Second phase of the colonial policy of Italy: Italian settlements
It follows an industrialization of Eritrea and a massive Italian immigration 1930-1935 from 5000 to 50.000 Italian men and women, until 1940 70.000 colonialists (SUKE, p.27, 55).

1930 ca.
Italian racist wage policy in Eritrea
There are wage differences between Italian men and women and Eritreans of the factor 3 to 5. The dissatisfaction of the native is growing (SUKE, p.201).

Italian gold robbery in big style
by the "Sindicato delle Miniere auriferi di Cheren" (SMAC), until 1960 (!). The robbery is varying from 3 to 422 kg fine gold per year (SUKE, p.197).

Massive expansion of the Italian sovereignty in Eritrea with poison campaigns
Because of this Italy is suffering a boycott from France and England, and Italy becomes dependent from German coal deliveries which are leading through Switzerland.
In: Heiniger: 13 Gründe. Warum die Schweiz im Zweiten Weltkrieg nicht erobert wurde (13 reasons. Why Switzerland was not occupied in Second World War].

Agriculture: Rise in output
Rise of the agriculture production of 57.000 hectares (1939) up to 260.000 hectares (1946)
->> deprivation of fertile soil
->> introduction of new taxes
->> the rural population is forced into dependency of wages
->> the dissatisfaction and the willingness for rebellion of the natives are more and more rising (SUKE, p.58).


Eritrean support for English troops
The Eritrean population supports openly the English troops against the Italian colonialist sirs (SUKE, p.121).

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7. Victory of the British army in 1941 against the Italian army - and further exploitation - England dismantles all industries


England "takes over" the big part of Eritrea

English colonialism reaches it's peak
The English army of occupation supports the split of the land by animist Christs in the South and Arab Islamists in the North (SUKE, p.27-28, 29, 30).

The Soviet Union "represents" Eritrea's independence
-- Soviet Union, Iraq and Pakistan are for an Eritrean independence
-- the Western industrial nations are for a federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia (SUKE, p.214).

Mining in Eritrea
The industrials of the Western world estimate that in Eritrea can be found the biggest copper ore deposits of the world: in the regions
Adi Cuscet, Shiketti, Lamza, Abarda and in other regions. Total reserves estimated: 14.933.000 tons.

Add to this there are other mineral resources in little quantities as iron ore, gold, potash. And before the coast there is presumed oil (SUKE, p.196-197).

Other deposits are: Salt deposits, mica, zinc, nickel, asbestos, kaolin, magnesium, manganese, titanium, feldspar, marble (SUKE, p.197).

English war economy in Eritrea
The British administration is establishing a war economic supplying industry in Eritrea: Consequences:
->> there is no change of the colonial, sociological structures (SUKE, p.57)
->> by the war economy the production of fish flour is given up
->> by the war economy the paper processing and sisal processing is given up (SUKE, p.204).

Schools in Eritrea for war economy - furthermore no general education and no education for women
The British administration is rising the number of primary schools from 24 to 59 with the aim to have administration forces and specialized workers for the English war industry.

At the same time religious and tribal specific prejudices are spread.

At the same time there is no general education realized, and the Eritrean women get furthermore no education at all (SUKE, p.121).

Coptic church: Hope for Ethiopia

The Coptic church wants back the church's possession and demands for a restitution of the deprived lands deprived by Italy. The church means the restitution could be reached by a union with Ethiopia where the Coptic churches have all rights.

This plan of a unification with Ethiopia pleases to the Ethiopian emperor government: It supports the Coptic church in Eritrea.

As a reaction of the land restitution demand there is founded the "Union's party" which is supported by colonialists and feudal landowners (SUKE, p.58-59).

Revolt movement against the English foreign rule and against English plans

-- against the force for wage work and against expropriations which don't find an end also after the British take over

-- against the plan of the British government which is against an Eritrean independence and is for a union with the Ethiopian empire (SUKE, p.58).

End of the war 1945: The English are dismantling the whole industry of Eritrea - breakdown
At the end of the war the industrial sector of the Eritrean economy is breaking down because the production was only for the war. The industrial plants are closed down. Partly there is the total dismantling and transportation of whole industrial plants to other British colonies (SUKE, p.57-58). The British are cannibalizing the land and are dismantling all what has a use in their home country (SUKE, p.27-28, 29, 30).

As a consequence there are whole groups of populations without work, e.g. the Saho who cannot sell their cattle herds any more to the meat processing industry any more (SUKE, p.57-58).

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8. Eritrea within the calculus of power after 1945: The strategic greediness at the "horn of Africa"


Italy's "claim"
Italy is going on claiming for Eritrea as a "pre-fascist colony" (SUKE, p.28).

Calculus of the Western Allies: Support of Ethiopia at the horn of Africa

Selassie, Ethiopian emperor 1933-1974, a poker gamer against Eritrea. Like others dictators in Africa and Asia - he gets any support from any side within the ideologic fight between capitalism and communism. By the position at the "horn of Africa" he becomes a despot.
                            Ethiopian emperor 1933-1974, a poker gamer
                            against Eritrea. Like others dictators in
                            Africa and Asia - he gets any support from
                            any side within the ideologic fight between
                            capitalism and communism. By the position at
                            the "horn of Africa" he becomes a

The "USA", England, Italy, and Israel, are supporting the Ethiopian government Selassie to establish a pro West government at the "horn of Africa". Eritrea gets no own rights (SUKE, p.214).

England's colonial administration accepts the founding of political parties
in Eritrea with the aim that the religious contradictions in Eritrea would be fixed also politically. But the population recognizes the danger and founds a counter movement "Eritrea to the Eritreans", the "Union party".

In the lowlands the "Islam League" is fighting first for a union with the Arab zone of the Sudan, but then also for an independence of Eritrea (SUKE, p.29).


Italy's "claim": "Veterans" are supported
Rome's government is yet always dreaming of the pre-fascist Eritrea colony. The government supports the veteran union and the pro Italian party in Eritrea with massive funds (SUKE, p.29-30).

Ethiopia's "claim" for Eritrea: Anti Italian assassination attempts
The Ethiopian government is performing a row of anti Italian assassination attempts. The assassination attempts are presented in a way as if the criminal group Shifta would stay behind it (SUKE, p.30).

4 great powers are doing nothing for Eritrea
The "USA", England, France and Russia are handing over the problem "Eritrea" to the newly founded "United Nations". By this the "USA", France and Russia want do counteract English colonialism (SUKE, p.30).

Plan by Bevin Sforza for a partition of Eritrea: France against it
By the proposal of the "United Nations" the two foreign ministers of England and Italy are working out the Bevin Sforza plan:
-- partition of Eritrea and Libya along the wishes of London
-- Italy should get a mandate over Somalia.

The plan fails above all because of the opposition of France which also claims a part of Libya for himself and which is against an English expansion of it's colonial empire up to Tunisia.

Russia would rather like a mandate of the UNO over Libya and Eritrea, but has nothing against an Italian "trusteeship" (SUKE, p.30-31).


UNO charta for self-determination of the peoples
as a basic right of the peoples (article 1 paragraph 2, article 55) (SUKE, p.221).

[But the word "self-determination" seems not to be defined. By this big colonialism is lasting to the 1960s].

Sentence of British "scientists" over Eritrea: not "survivable"

The British "scientists" claim that Eritrea would not be "survivable":

"The most probable case is that when Eritrea cannot live for its own, in the case of an independence the population has ho chance to survive."

"Auf sich selbst gestellt kann Eritrea aller Voraussicht nach nicht leben, im Falle einer Unabhängigkeit hat sein Volk keine Chance zum Überleben.")

(In: Gray, J.C./Silberman, L.: in "The Fate of Italian Colonies. A Report to the Fabian Colonial Bureau with contributions by an observer in Eritrea". London 1948)

->>  the destruction of the Eritrean economy is now taken as a pretext to forbid Eritrea the independence

->> the Italian colonial policy was aimed for the installation of exportation industries, not for production for the population, by this an own industry cannot exist for the Eritrean population

->> the British "estimation" is a result of "statistic thinking" [without concerning that it was the British who have dismantled the industries] (SUKE, p.47, 247).


2d December 1950
Resolution 390A (V) of the "United Nations" over Eritrea: Dictation for a federation
Both big powers are speaking against the will of liberation of the Eritrean people. There is a dictation of a federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia: Eritrea is "joined" to Ethiopia by 40:10 votes with 4 abstentions, as "autonomic unity within the federation with Ethiopia under the sovereignty of the Ethiopian crown". A democratic constitution for Eritrea will be elaborated by a commissioner of the UNO by September 1952. The "USA" are putting through their "interests". The "American" State Secretary John Foster Dulles:

"When one sees the point of view of justice there would have been considered the meaning of the Eritreans. But the interest of the United States at the Red Sea and the considerations according to the safety and the world peace make it necessary that the country will be joined to Ethiopia." (cited from Poscia 1986, p.31)

The countries of the Eastern Bloc are against this solution and for an independence of Eritrea.

At the same time are determined the independences of Libya and a mandate of Italy over Somalia for 10 years.

->> the "pre-fascist colonies" of Italy are liquidated by this

->> but Eritrea and its ethnic community are never asked and have to submit to the "interests" of the "world powers" (SUKE, p.31-32, 33, 207).

[And at the same time one has to consider that "US" banks are financing communism since 1917 and since 1945 again, so all the fight of the Western and Eastern Bloc is a theater production by the "USA" for having war reasons and "Frontiers". We say thank you stupid "USA". When do you pay compensation?]

April 1950 ca.
UNO report about Eritrea: Eritrea is not survivable
The UNO commission for Eritrea utters the meaning that a cultivation of grain in Eritrea of additional 40.000 tons of grain would be possible with new technical means. By the opening of the land with well installations and canal construction not used fertile soil should be used in the Tessenai Gulluj plain, in Om Hager Gulluj, Bashis, in the Gash valley and in Mansura. By this even a surplus will be possible, the UNO means (SUKE, p.51).

December 1950
Collaboration between the "USA" and Ethiopia: Military bases
Agreement between the "USA" and Ethiopia. The English bases in Eritrea are put under the control of the "USA" for 25 years.

->>  again Eritrea and its ethnic community are not asked
->> Eritrea becomes a tool of the "big powers" because of its "strategic position".

Besides autocratic absolutism in Ethiopia stands contrary to the democratic constitution of Eritrea (SUKE, p.32-33).


Forced federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia
UNO decides the forced "integration" of Eritrea with Ethiopia. The dictatorial conditions from Addis Abeba let impoverish Eritrea:

-- feudalism on the countryside is fixed more and more
-- the broad masses of the people are more impoverishing than before
-- there is formed a feudal landowner's class and an urban bourgeoisie which means now that it would represent the interests of Eritrea
-- the Eritrean economy cripples
-- the institutions of the colonial time which functioned until now are crippling now under the Ethiopian government
-- there is no investment activity
-- there is nothing changed what concerns the discriminating education system (SUKE, p.59, 121).

1952-1996 ca.
Eritrea as a victim of strategies of the super powers ("USA") - fight for independence

Because of its strategical position the two super powers "USA" and "Soviet Union" are hindering the independence for Eritrea until the 1990ies. The argument is always the same: "safeguarding the world peace" (SUKE, p.221).

[In fact "USA" is financing communism and is organizing one war after another].

The Eritrean trade unions are fighting against the closure of over 800 factories and the transportation of the factories to Ethiopia (SUKE, p.33).

2nd January 1953
Mass demonstration in Eritrea
It's the greatest mass demonstration ever hold, under the leadership of the president of the Eritrean trade unions, Woldeab Woldemariam. Diplomatic representatives from different countries are taking part. The Ethiopian government feels attacked (SUKE, p.33).

Woldeab Woldemariam, Eritrean trade
                              union leader against the Ethiopian
                              occupation, 30 years he had to be in

Woldeab Woldemariam, Eritrean trade union leader against the Ethiopian occupation, 30 years he had to be in exile.

4th January 1953
Assassination attempt at Woldeab Woldemariam: Exile in Egypt
After the assassination attempt Woldeab is heavily injured and is forced to go into exile to Cairo. From there he is managing an Eritrean radio.

March 1952
Elections in Eritrea: Dissolving of parties
In Eritrea a balance between unionists and independents is established.

->>  All parties for an independence are dissolved, only the unionists are allowed to exist. The leader of the unionists, Tedla Bairu, is authorized to form a government (SUKE, p.33).

In the following time the dissolved parties are protesting at the UNO against the repeated violation of the federative constitution. The UNO is not acting and is pretending to have no power... (SUKE, p.33, 34).

[The UNO is mostly bribed by the "USA" - Eritrea is partly put back into the stone age
Big parts of the UNO members are bribed by the super power "USA". The dictatorships in Ethiopia turn out to be more loyal to the "USA" than Eritrea, Eritrea is involved in a fight until the "Soviet Union" is dissolved. This fight is destroying the whole country and partly is putting back the population into the stone age. Compensation? There is none...

The financiers of the Free Masons of the "USA" are financing communism. By the eternal war on the world - the aim of the Free Masons to keep the world "in panic" - Eritrea is not the only land which is put back into the stone age. There is no compensation. Thank you USA shit, thank you Eisenhower...]

Resistance at the labor unions in Eritrea and dictatorship step by step
Resistance of the Eritrean labor unions with the workers on the base is rising on and on.
->> freedom of the press is abolished
->> the official language Tigrinia and Arab are displaced by the official language of Ethiopia, the Amharic.

Moon poem in Tigrinia in Tigrinian
vergrössernMoon poem in Tigrinia
in Tigrinian writing
A fable in Amharic in Amharic writing
vergrössernA fable in Amharic
in Amharic writing

And add to this in 1958 also the trade unions of Eritrea are dissolved (SUKE, p.33).

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9. The fight for liberty for 30 years about Eritrea against the super powers 1958-1990 - the underground organizations

May 1958
General strike in Eritrea

against the subtle annexation by Ethiopia. There are dozens of deads and hurts, 100s are arrested, oppositionists are sent into exile (SUKE, p.34).


Map of Sudan
                          with Port Sudan in the North
Map of Sudan with Port Sudan in the North
Foundation of the underground movement in Eritrea: ELM (Eritrean Liberation Movement)
Formation of the underground movement after the general strike: "Eritrean Liberation Movement" (ELM), founded by some exiled. It's knowns soon as "Mahber Showatte" / "Group of the 7", the seat of the direction is in Port Sudan (SUKE, p.34).

[The "USA" shit under Kennedy and Johnson, later under Nixon and Carter, are holding the connection with Ethiopia against Eritrea, until Ethiopia itself is changing to the "Soviet Union". Is there a compensation? Is there an apologize? Is there a compensation for this?]


Quotation from Eritrea:
"They are shooting with ammunition against us to kill us - we make music with the ammunition capsules."

"the dancing revolutionaries":
At the day of rest (Wednesday) common dances are hold with the Eritrean string instruments Krar and the drums, with songs and dances of all new Ethnic groups of Eritrea (SUKE, p.20).

Second underground movement in Eritrea: ELF (Eritrean Liberation Front)
Founding of the second underground movement "Eritrean Liberation Front" (ELF), founded by the exiled Eritrean leading persons in Sudan and Egypt. They come from the lowlands mainly and are mainly Islamic, lead from Idris Mohamed Adem (from 1955-1956 president of the Eritrean parliament).

In an open polemic together with the ELM the leaders of the ELF are propagating the armed fight for the Eritrean independence. In the first years the ELF is a typical guerrilla movement. The military education is performed in the Sudanese army.

Members of the ELF are above all members of the ethnics groups of the Beni and of the Amer from the Barka region (SUKE, p.35).

1st September 1961
Beginning of the armed fight for the liberation of Eritrea
ELF assault of 13 ELF men on a police post in Barka in the Western lowlands (SUKE, p.35).

School education in the languages Tigre and Tigrinia
In 1962 the number of schools in Eritrea is risen  up to 145.

vergrössernText in Tigre language in Eritrea
Text in Tigre language in Eritrea [These schools are surely also installed to manipulate the population in a certain direction. When the population should be manipulated by flyers and by spurious arguments the population has to be capable to read...]

It's the first time that the rural areas get a modest education system. From now on the education languages are Tigre and Tigrinia up to the 4th class (SUKE, p.121).

Dictatorship: The Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie forces the parliament of Asmara to self-dissolution
(SUKE, S.35)

[it can be admitted that this happens with the backing of the "USA" shit who are financing communism at the same time and by this are spreading war all over the world. At the same time "USA" is arguing about atomic bombs on Cuba which are also financed indirectly by "American" financiers...]

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10. Alliance between Ethiopia and Israel, with the "USA", with the "Soviet Union"

10.1. In 1962 Eritrea is occupied and 14th Ethiopian "province"

14th November 1962
Annexation of Eritrea and proclamation of an "Anschluss"
Annexation Eritreas by Ethiopian troops and emperor Selassie
-- Eritrea is declared the 14th Ethiopian province
-- the UNO and the international public are not watching the events (SUKE, p.35).

[The dictation of the "USA" in favor of the "American friendly" Ethiopia becomes stronger and stronger. Thank you Kennedy, thank you Johnson...]

the same day on 14th November 1962
Alliance between Selassie and the Israel [racist, US Free Mason] government
Emperor Selassie and his militaries are in alliance with Israel consultants (SUKE, p.36, 37).

With the declaration to be the 14th Ethiopian "province" emperor Selassie is signing the destruction of his own empire at the same time, because the annexation would not be accepted by the African community. That's why Selassie hopes for a fait accompli, yet before the OAU is founded. The United Nations [of which the majority is demonstrably bribed by the "USA"] are not interested in Eritrea...

So, because any world political help for Eritrea is missing the Eritrean population only sees the possibility to fight for independence against the troops of emperor Selassie, with the aim to win (SUKE, p.36, 208).

at the same day on 14th November 1962
Book burning in Eritrea against school books
Emperor Selassie organizes the book burning of all school books which are written in Eritrean languages. Arab and Tigrinia are restituted by the Ethiopian Amharic.

In Eritrea the duty for glorification of emperor Selassie is introduced, with songs and poems [according to communist methods].

In fact the Selassie dictatorship is continuing the colonial system of the oppression of the education against the Eritrean population, how it was under the Italian and the English regime (SUKE, p.122).

since 14th November 1962
Arab help for ELF
Arab countries are sending relief supplies to the ELF in the fight against Selassie (SUKE, p.36).

Soviet help for Eritrea is only oral
(SUKE, p.214)

since 14th November 1962
Internal disputes in the ELF and defeat
ELF decides the theory of the "existence of one single organization" and claims that only one single "organization" could liberate Eritrea.
->> ELF is fighting not only Ethiopian troops, but also ELM (SUKE, p.36)

->> there is no uniform resistance against the Selassie troops

->> the Selassie troops can attack every province seperately

->> the ELF suffers a defeat with a massacre

->> there is an Eritrean flow of refugees flowing into Sudan (SUKE, p.37-38).

25th May 1963
Foundation of the OAU [in Addis Abeba under the leadership of: Selassie...]
(SUKE, p.208)

OAU Fahne
Poster for the opening ceremony of the
                            OAU in Addis Abeba 1963
Detail of the OAU
vergrössernFlag of Organization of African Unity (OAU)
vergrössernPoster for the opening ceremony of the OAU in Addis Abeba 1963
Detail of the OAU flag

[At this union of African dictators in Ethiopia in Addis Abeba Eritrea does not exist. The dictators are canvassed each from several sides - from capitalism and from communism and partly also from Judaism - with funds. The dictators are bunkering the money mostly in Switzerland. The Swiss policy in Berne says to be "neutral"...]

Beginning of the Soviet influence against Ethiopia
by the help for Somalia and the Sudan (SUKE, p.214).

[The fight of ideologies between capitalism and communism is spreading over the whole African continent. The new founded states in Africa cannot find the middle course between capitalism and communism].


Second OAU conference in Cairo: Selassie is achieving to manipulate the OAU
Emperor Selassie arrives in concealing his aims in Eritrea before the other African states. He presents the situation as if his annexation of Eritrea would not break the UNO resolution and would not be against an independence of the Eritrean people (SUKE, p.208).

OAU: Recognition of the border lines of colonialism
The OAU conference concludes to recognize the border lines in Africa which are defined by the white colonialists.

The conference "guarantees the perpetual partition of Africa by determinating the inherited border lines are named as recognized and as inviolable."

"garantiert die dauerhafte Aufteilung Afrikas, indem die vom Kolonialismus geerbten Grenzen anerkannt und als unantastbar bezeichnet werden." (SUKE, p.208)

In fact Eritrea's independence is deleted by the OAU

In the case of Eritrea it remains unclear of the border lines of 1941 or 1964 as annexed land are recognized.
->> in fact the right of self-determination of Eritrea is deleted
->> in the OAU Eritrea is not existing!
->> the decolonization of Eritrea cannot be performed

->> the OAU is only an organization for the African dictators to stay in power, and OAU is not for the African peoples
->> the colonization of an African country by another African country is totally pushed to the back of the mind (SUKE, p.208).

Potash winning for artificial fertilizer: up to 600.000 tons per year, deposit is the Danakil desert.
->> this is the biggest production of the whole world (SUKE, p.52)

[and Selassie is probably getting the whole profit].

Political work and reflexion in the ELF
Beginning of the conscious political work in Eritrea after the occupation by Selassie's troops.

-- aim: Abolition of the feudal system with land reform
-- phrasing of the "unity of the three"
-- claim for a reform of the ELF
-- the intellecutals are operating from Sudan
-- a little Christian group concludes to go on with the fight organizing a guerrilla war from the highlands (SUKE, p.37, 38).


The flag of the EPLF. The star in the flag provokes a communist aversion in the Western world, as if the "American" flag provokes aversions in the communist countries. And the Free Masons' lodges of the "USA" are financing both at the same time, it's a "game" for them...

EPLF flag

Foundation of the EPLF (Eritrean People's Liberation Front)
Incorporation of the resistance groups in Sudan and of the guerrilleros. The result ist the "Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), by 1976 represented by the responsible for diplomacy of the ELF, Osman Saleh Sabbeh (SUKE, p.38).

Reserves of the agriculture production of Eritrea
In Eritrea's agriculture about 1 mio. hectares are cultivated. The double would be possible (SUKE, p.51).

There are also huge potash reserves in the Eastern Eritrea, in the Danakil lowlands, are not won. The mineral fertilizer for the soil is to have in practically unlimited quantities (SUKE, p.52).

Civil war despite of famines
                                  Eritrea as a province of Ethiopia in
                                  1970. A black country wants to
                                  colonize another black country...

vergrössernMap: Eritrea as a province of Ethiopia in 1970. A black country wants to colonize another black country...

Despite of famines the EPLF is making civil war against the Ethiopian troops, with different intensity. By this EPLF is split:

-- the ELF is split into two different wings which are making war against each other with revolts and cleansing, so they reduce each other

-- but the ELF groups are forced to come together by Arab deliveries again and again (SUKE, p.38).

Saudi Arabia is adapting the "US" policy
to win influence on Libya, Ethiopia and to reduce the influence of the "Soviet Union" (SUKE, p.214).

Invasion of the Ethiopian army against Eritrea despite famine in Ethiopia
(SUKE, p.39)

Aid organization RRC in Ethiopia against famine
The help organization RRC (Relief and Rehabilitation Commission) is an efficient aid organization at this moment (SUKE, p.179).

12th September 1974,
Defeat of the Ethiopian army (II. Division) - overthrow of Selassie - the "Derg" military council of Ethiopia

The military defeat provokes new events:

->> military revolt and anti feudal revolt
->> overthrow of emperor Haile Selassie
->> foundation of a temporary Ethiopian military council: "Derg".

This Derg wants an independent Eritrea. At the same time the aim is a strong central state (SUKE, p.39, 122).

10.2. Rise to power of Mengistu in Ethiopia

Ethiopia's dictator Mengistu
Ethiopia's dictator Mengistu

Overthrow in the Derg: Aman Andoms is deprived of the power and Teferi Bante comes
->> a part of the army and of the police takes the power
->> a revolt of the population is suppressed
->> the "socialist" fraction around Haile-Mariam-Mengistu is putting itself through and lets liquidate the left opposition forces of Ethiopia (SUKE, p.39, 122).

[In what way the "USA" are involved in the overthrow of the Derg has to be investigated. The CIA under Johnson and Nixon up to Carter has manipulated many changes of government to have "friendly" states abroad...]

9th December 1974
Eritrean attacks against Keren and Asmara

Keren: Camels at the periphery of
                              Keren (2003)
vergrössernKeren: Camels at the periphery of Keren (2003)

by the ELF and the EPLF, against Keren and Asmara. 20.000 Ethiopian soldiers in front positions give up their positions and retreat into some few towns (SUKE, p.40).
The "USA" are continuing the military help for Ethiopia
(SUKE, p.214)

[The "American" financiers and Free Masons are financing communism and by this they have always an enemy in the world...]

by 1975
Copper ore deposits changing the hands to EPLF
By 1975 the copper ore deposits are under Ethiopian control and the exploitation is performed by the Japan multi  "Nippon Koei Co.".

In 1975 the territory comes under Eritrean sovereignty. These are the richest copper ore deposits of the world: the region of Adi Cuscet, Shiketti, Lamza, Abarda and other regions (SUKE, p.196).

EPLF in Keren, Dekemhare, Dongolo and others
->> reactivation of the industries and the public services
->> establishment of new EPLF structures
->> production for the needs of the population
->> also improvement of the working conditions (SUKE, p.203).

since 1975
Repression of Ethiopia under Mengistu against Eritrea: Bombings - refugee camps
The new Ethiopian government Mengistu is not successful to defeat militarily the EPLF .
->> trial of a barbarous repression policy against the civil population
->> the Ethiopian troops are bombing above all villages and schools
->> 10.000 to 20.000 victims at the Eritrean civil population

->> the rural population stays without education
->> 10.000s go into refugee camps and leave the villages
->> there is a social uprooting, food problems, illiteracy, when there is no support by the ERA (SUKE, p.40, 122).

[Mengistu tries to destroy Eritrea with a Vietnam tactics. The unsuccessful "American" tactics in Vietnam is applied in Eritrea no, absolutely legally, and at the end also without success...]

Schools in occupied Eritrea
The schools are on a low level and the Ethiopians apply brutal education methods (SUKE, p.123).

Support of the agriculture of Ethiopia - negligence of Eritrea
After the overthrow of Selassie there is dominating a "Socialist" military government in Ethiopia

-- state's farms are introduced in the center of Ethiopia with the main part of the development funds

-- the products of the Ethiopian state's farms are bought by the Ethiopian marketing company AMC by higher prices as Eritrean products

-- in Eritrea there are no investments

-- the farmers are forced to be members in the "farmer's union"

-- by this private farmer's investments for the rural infrastructure are avoided (SUKE, p.59).

since middle of 1975 approx.
Ethiopia: Foundation of a new farmer's militia of the Derg against Eritrea
The Derg creates an new Ethiopian farmer's militia against Eritrea. The Derg presents a "9 points plan". Eritrea is granted only autonomy (SUKE, p.40).

Rapes - the women take revenge and are going to the Eritrean army
In 1975 the Ethiopian occupants are performing a wave of rapes in Eritrea [to humiliate the population systematically]: Women are stopped in the streets, arrested without reason and raped in the prisons. When the rapes don't stop the population is flowing more and more to the EPLF for the armed fight against the Ethiopians. But now also the women are welcomed to the Eritrean Army.

As a consequence the EPLF has to create a sphere without fear for women. By this a new habit between men and women is made possible (SUKE, p.83, 94).

Quotation of the EPLF:
"Fight with one hand, work with the other one!" (SUKE, p.158)

Relief organization for Eritrea: ERA
This is the answer to the big humanitarian distress from 1975: the little African organization "Eritrean Relief Association" ERA
-- some founders are members in the EPLF at the same time
-- other co-founders are member by humanitarian interest (SUKE, p.169-170).

Ethiopia: Foundation of the opposition group "Tigray People's Liberation Front" (TPLF)
Aims are:
-- overthrow of the Mengistu dominance
-- the Tigray province shall get an autonomy politically and economically (SUKE, p.209).

Foundation of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF)
with a numerical center in the Wollega province. Aim is an stand-alone own country OROMIA (SUKE, p.209).

Ethiopia: More foundations of opposition groups against Mengistu
-- Amharic groups, e.g.
-- Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP), later from Mengistu liquidated
-- Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement (EPDM), a separation of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP)
-- All Ethiopian Socialist Movement (Meisone): later from Mengistu liquidated
-- Afar Liberation Front (ALF): an Ethnic movement of the Afars
-- Western Somali Liberation Front, a Somali rooted movement from Ogaden.

The opposition groups are at strife above all concerning the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) (SUKE, p.209-210).

At the same time the EPLF gives assistance to the Ethiopian opposition groups, above all for the buildup of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF). Later the relationship is cooling down because of ideologic differences (SUKE, p.210).


Eritrea: Demonstration  of the landowners and counter demonstration
Demonstrations of the landowners against the projected land reform of the EPLF
->> the politicized farmers are organizing a massive counter demonstration (SUKE, p.63).

since 1976

Eritrean refugees abroad: Men against women
The female refugees of Eritrea are more and more getting feminist to the macho attitudes of the male Eritrean refugees (SUKE, p.92).

First women organization in Eritrea: "Eritrean Women's Association"
(SUKE, p.80)

First "Zero school" in Sahel province
founded by 300 students, with a primary school 1st to 5th class level, then secondary school 6th and 7th class level. By bombings the school has to change its seat several times (SUKE, p.135-136).

13th July 1967
The Ethiopian farmer's militia suffers defeats
and is withdrawing (SUKE, p.40).

10.3. First unity congress of the EPLF

January 1977
First unity congress of the EPLF
Adoption of the first "National Democratic program" (NDP)
-- land reform: Arrangement of the land question with forming and support of cooperatives
-- transformation of the big farms into public enterprises for the use of the masses

-- the Eritrean nomads "Beni Amer" should be "made" sedentary and should be "lead" to agriculture
-- program for alphabetization and women emancipation, above all for the nomad women who are restricted by Islam

-- program for elimination of mutilation of the clitoris and infibulations (mutilation of the labia) of women is possible to be put through only in the own rows
-- program for the unification of the women with the possibility to take part in the fight

-- liberation of the women from domestic restraint, women take part in the sociological production with same wages
-- maternity protection, provision of mother and child, extermination of prostitution

-- protection from work which is harmful for health
-- support of female cadre and education in "men's professions"
-- support of the self-help organization
(SUKE, p.61, 66, 70-71, 74, 80, 84, 85).

since February 1977

Realization of the women's program

For the members of the EPLF is declared compulsory:
-- minimum age for marriage for women is 18 years, for men 21 years

-- prohibition of bride prices, of marriage portion and other transactions for affiance and marriage
-- principle of the voluntarily mate selection and monogamy

-- when there is divorce: The half of the possession is for the woman, the woman can claim for support up to the half of the income of the husband, both have the same right to file a petition for divorce

-- prohibition of the mutilation of girls and conviction work at traditional "midwives"
-- equal ranking of sons and daughters in the law of succession

-- widow claim for land possession
-- women over 30 ("not marriageable") get the half of a part of a family
-- equal ranking of legitimate and illegitimate children.

The resistance of nomad men against the women rights
At the nomads the program fails: It's not possible to put it through. The nomad men even try to kill women who have contacts to the EPLF (SUKE, p.80-81, 113).

->> the EPLF requests the hardliner of the nomads to prove by Koran that women education would be forbidden

->> there is no prove in the Koran for that (SUKE, p.81-82).

"Soviet" consultants from Sudan are expelled

After expulsion of "Soviet" "consultants" from Sudan "Soviet" policy is searching approach to Ethiopia's Mengistu for not loosing influence in Africa (SUKE, p.214-215).

Eritrea: The landless and the women dare dominating the people's assemblies
Landless, poor farmers and women are forming together a big majority in the people's assemblies [probably because the young men are engaged in the war and cannot take part in the assemblies and they have a high death rate] (SUKE, p.82).

The needs for a self-supply of Eritrea
-- independent economic and political model (SUKE, p.185)

-- decoupling from the world market with protective tariffs (SUKE, p.187)

-- at the same time there has to be education work and by this it will be possible to persist on the market (SUKE, p.192)

-- change of the inner structure (SUKE, p.188):

oo find self-realization in the work
oo have the right not to be sold to the production process
oo not to use the humans as a tool
oo development of a home market in favour of the large masses
oo linking between agriculture with handicrafts and industry step by step (SUKE, p.190).

The development has to comprehend the whole society (SUKE, p.191).

Considering the mineral resources Eritrea is a rich land and can live for its own (SUKE, p.197).

Karte von Eritrea mit Nakfa und
                            Tessenai / Teseny     

Map of Eritrea with Nakfa and Tessenai

21th March 1977
Conquests of the EPLF: Nakfa
Nakfa is the main town of the Sahel province and is taken by the EPLF (SUKE, p.40).

22th March 1977
Tessenai is conquered by EPLF
(SUKE, p.40)

August 1977
EPLF begins with the siege of Asmara
(SUKE, S.40)

Ethiopian Plans for immersion of atomic waste before the Eritrean coast
The Ethiopian government wants to immerse atomic waste before Eritrea. The EPLF is resisting and is the first African authority claiming for an anti waste convention (SUKE, p.198).


Alliance of Ethiopia with the "Soviet Union", Cuba and GDR
After wing fights in the Derg and after some people had been shoot according to martial law there are new developments in Ethiopia:

->> the pro-Soviet wing under Mengistu can put himself through
->> closure of a military settlement with the "Soviet Union"
->> the war in Eritrea with the direct settlement with the "Soviet Union" is coming into new dimensions (SUKE, p.40, 44).

As a return service for the "alliance" the "Soviet Union" can use the Dahlak islands before Massaua as a military marine base (SUKE, p.215).

No reversal at the Western powers
The alliance between Ethiopia and the "Soviet Union" has no consequences at the Western powers concerning Eritrea. Eritrea does not receive support. To the contrary: The Western powers try to keep the connection with Mengistu by economic and humanitarian help: by strategical reasons... (SUKE, p.215).

[Thank you, "USA" shit...]

The Ogaden war causes a postponement of an offensive against Eritrea
The planned Ethiopian offensive against Eritrea with Russian and Cuban help has to be postponed by one year because of the Ogaden war.

With the help of the Cuban soldiers which perform a predominant fight Ethiopia can win the Ogaden war (SUKE, p.41).

Eritrea: First curriculum in the languages Tigrinia and Tigre for primary schools
The curriculum gets some variations for certain regions in 1978 and in 1980. The learning targets are really the opposite to the colonial education system:

1. "Education is a process of socialization and learning and the learning people are mutually included as partners.
2. we try to connect always the theory with the social experience.
3. Our pedagogic endeavors are starting from the pupil, from his experience and from his cultural background."

With this there is established a school system in Eritrea which can get over the contradiction between town and countryside, which can get over the disregard of the farmers by the "educated" townspeople, and which can get over the disregard between manual labour and mental work (SUKE, p.128-129).

10.4. Ethiopian invasion with Soviet and Cuban help

June 1978
Ethiopian offensive against Eritrea from three points
-- Eritrea is attacked by an expedition corps armed with the latest "Soviet" weapons
-- reinforced by MiG jet fighters who are steered by Cuban and South Yemenitic pilots
-- with gunboats of the "Soviet" fleet from the Red Sea Massaua is defended against EPLF (SUKE, p.41).

July 1978
Withdrawal of the EPLF to the Sahel territory
The EPLF concludes the strategical withdrawal into the mountains of the Sahel province. Consequences:

-- thousands of civilians are following because they know from the work in the industries that EPLF structures are human

-- set up of a functioning infra structure in the new base territory
-- dismantling and transport of the most important machinery to the center
-- set up of repair plants and of diverse small-scale industry
-- set up of a new front south from Nakfa (SUKE, p.41, 203).

The Sahel mountains become a invulnerable fortress (SUKE, p.164). The schools must be given up, but not in Nakfa, Barentu, Tessenei and Agordat (SUKE, p.143).

since 1978
Accommodation in stone beds in the Sahel mountains
(SUKE, p.158)

[Now Eritrea has reached the Stone Age...]

In this plight EPLF became "the most disciplined guerrilla army of the world" (orig.: "die disziplinierteste Guerillaarmee der Welt",  Weltwoche says at 21th June 1990 (SUKE, p.164).

[Is there a compensation for that, what the "USA" and "Soviet Union" have committed in Eritrea? a commemoration day?]

since July 1978
All in all 9 attacks of Ethiopia
-- with "Soviet" consultants
-- with immense losses of humans and material
-- and also with toxic gas (SUKE, p.41).

Inventions by the plight

-- light switch by used injection syringes
-- recycling of used or conquered war material (SUKE, p.202).

Women in the Eritrean army
Since 1978 there is a continuous flow of women to the EPLF who are also learning the fight with a gun. In the extreme situation of the fight the EPLF women fighters are braver and more persistent than the men (SUKE, p.83).

The total impoverishment of the Eritrean rural population by absent rainfall

Factors in the countryside are:

-- absent rainfall
-- increasing soil erosion by clearing of forest by war
-- depopulation of whole territories.

By this the population of Eritrea is impoverishing totally (SUKE, p.61).

In the course of the Ethiopian attacks 28.000 of the 50.000 humans in the Sh'eb agriculture region are leaving. The agriculture production is declining (SUKE, p.51).

[No rain by global dimming
The contamination in the atmosphere by the industrial states and the transport of the contaminated air up to the equator ("global dimming") implicates that the seasonal rainfalls on the height of the Sahel zone are absent because the solar radiation for the evaporation and for the building of clouds is not intensive enough. The "science" who means that all contaminates would "dilute" and by this there would be no harm to fear are producing a holocaust and mass migration in Africa in an undreamt-of dimension. Since 1995 approx. the global dimming is reducing again by environment measures for the air pollution control and the humidity on the level of the Sahara is increasing again].

vergrössern Fotos from the war in Eritrea: Examples 1977 and 1978: David against Goliath...
(from: www.ertra.com)
Martyr Hamid Idris Awate, the man who
                            fired the first shots of freedom on 1st
                            September 1961

Martyr Hamid Idris Awate, the man who fired the first shots of freedom on 1st September 1961

Beginning of the offensive of the

After 16 years of armed struggle, the Eritreans began the offensive for the final liberation of their country from Ethiopian occupation.

Beginning of the offensive of the resistance.
Keren liberated on 8th July 1977

Keren, the second largest city was liberated in July 8, 1977 after a fighting of three days.

Keren liberated on 8th July 1977.
Withdrawal from the beach of Massawa

In 1977, the strategic port of Massawa was virtually under the control of the Eritreans. The Eritreans paid high price but were not able to liberate the port completely. Massive fire power from the sea and air forced the Eritreans to retreat.

Withdrawal from the beach of Massawa.
Withdrawal from the levee of Massawa

In 1977, the Eritreans were this close to liberate strategic port of Massawa.
The Eritreans cut the vital road Asmara-Massawa in November 1977 and December of the same year, they attacked the port itself. Three-fourth of Massawa fell in Eritrean hands. However, savage bombardment from Soviet warships and Soviet supplied fighter planes prevented its total liberation.

Withdrawal from the levee of Massawa.
Dekemhare liberated on 6th July 1977

Dekemhare city, 40 Km from the capital city Asmara was liberated in July 6, 1977. Earlier the towns Teseney, Akordat and Mendefra were liberated.
The encirclement of the capital city Asmara was complete.

Dekemhare liberated on 6th July 1977.
Push up to Digsa before Asmara

The Eritrean fighters advanced further to Digsa and were close to the capital city, Asmara.

Push to Digsa before Asmara.
An Ethiopian tank in Segheneiti has to
                            give up

In Aug 1977, The Ethiopian army was defeated in Segheneiti. This pictures shows a tank being captured.

An Ethiopian tank in Segheneiti has to give up.
"Soviet" rockets for

In mid 1978, the arms and resources of the Super Power Soviet was employed to wipe out the freedom fighters.
The Eritreans realized it was suicidal to confront head on the might of the Ethio-Soviet military machine.
The Eritreans decided on a strategic retreat.

"Soviet" rockets for Ethiopia.

Withdrawal and first digging of moats
                            practically without any tools

Scarce rudimentary tools were used to move mountains.

Withdrawal and first digging of moats practically without any tools.

Defense canon of the Eritrean

Heavy weapons were ready for action.

Defense canon of the Eritrean resistance.
Ethiopian push with heavy losses: Tank

The Ethiopian army paid heavily for every piece of ground it gained.
The Eritreans were able to see beyond the dust blown up by the soviet tanks.
After a short period of attrition, they believed the tide will turn to their favor.

Ethiopian push with heavy losses: Tank burnt.
Eritrean resistance tiwh machine gun

Young Eritrean freedom fighters. It is love of freedom that spurs them to fight for it.

Eritrean resistance with machine gun.
"Soviet" and Cuban
                            consultants and soldiers for Ethiopia

The advisors and resources of the Soviets and Cubans against the determination of a small nation.

"Soviet" and Cuban consultants and soldiers for Ethiopia.
Eritrea since 1978: Women are
                            digging moats 15

Eritrean fighters dug hundreds of kilometers of trenches for a final trench warfare.
They were convinced that the determination and indefatigable resistance of the Eritrean people will decide the outcome, not the size of army or quantity of weapons.

Eritrea since 1978: Women are digging moats.
Mengistu invoking his 10 fold
                            superiority against Eritrea


New arms, troops and intervention of the soviets against a small nation.The Ethiopian leader, Mengistu, addressing his troops "We have a superiority of at least 10 to 1 over the bandits, we will crash them...", he said.

Mengistu invoking his 10 fold superiority against Eritrea.
Eritrea: Gas masks against the 6th
                            offensive of Mengistu 17

Gas masks were required to withstand the 6th offensive of the Ethiopians.

Eritrea: Gas masks against the 6th offensive of Mengistu.
Ethiopian bombings in the mountains 18

The Ethiopians could not penetrate the mountains.

Ethiopian bombings in the mountains.
Education of the Eritrean army


More Eritreans started to join the liberation movements lead by ELF and EPLF.

Education of the Eritrean army.

Education at a conquered defense canon

Eritrean fighters learning the newly captured weaponry, [here a defense canon].

Education at a conquered defense canon.
Instructions against the Ethiopian
                            operation "Red Star"

Preparation to foil Ethiopia's Red Star Operation.

Instructions against the Ethiopian operation "Red Star".
The resistance is driving conquered

Many Ethiopian tanks were captured. Eritreans mastered the captured tanks very quickly.

The resistance is driving conquered tanks.

vergrössern Fotos from the retreats in Eritrea: Education, nutrition, bunker construction

(from: www.ertra.com)

These fotos from the retreats are similar to the fotos from the Vietnam war. But the bunker constructioning was much more difficult because the resistance fighters had to entrench themselves partly into rock...

Eritrean retreat area: Mother learns to

Mothers struggling to eliminate illiteracy.

Eritrean retreat area: Mother learns to read.
Eritrean retreat area: Children learn
                            to read.

Young boys and girls in one of the 150 schools.

Eritrean retreat area: Children learn to read.
Eritrean retreat area: Schools open
                            air, not important where

No time to waste, classes were setup wherever possible.

Eritrean retreat area: Schools open air, not important where.
Eritrean retreat area: Education also
                            for elder men

Regardless of their age, education was a serious business for all.

Eritrean retreat area: Education also for elder men.
Eritrean retreat area: Chicken farm

Self-reliance in all aspects of life. The supply of chickens and eggs were vital for hospitals.

Eritrean retreat area: Chicken farm.
Eritrean retreat area: Goat herd

Self-reliance in all aspects of life. Animal farming while fighting was a necessity.

Eritrean retreat area: Goat herd.
Eritrean retreat area: Gardening

Self-reliance in all aspects of life. Gardening while fighting.

Eritrean retreat area: Gardening.
Eritrean retreat area: Harvest in the

Self-reliance in all aspects of life. Gardening while fighting: [harvest].

Eritrean retreat area: Harvest in the garden.
Eritrea retreat area: Baking open air

Self-reliance in all aspects of life. Cooking while fighting.

Eritrea retreat area: Baking open air.
Eritrea retreat area: Bunker
                            constructioning against the bombings

The fighters built hospitals, schools, ammunition depot, factories, garages and even conference rooms underground. This was the only way to survive the intense bombing of the Ethiopian MIG jet fighters.

Eritrea retreat area: Bunker constructioning against the bombings.

New women organizations in Eritrea: "National Union of Eritrean Women" (NUEW)
Spread of the women programs of the EPLF in the common civil population: The NUEW's function is to convince the people and to be a model. NUEW is pleading for

oo equality of education
oo emancipation concerning the health
oo implementation of keeping of small domestic animals like chicken farms or rabbit breeding
oo foundation of little village shops with housewares.

Add to this NUEW is operating a research and information department (SUKE, p.80, 90).


The Eritrea question in the UNO

An expert report of the people's tribunal states:

oo  a justification for a claim of Ethiopia on Eritrea is not possible
oo  the events in the antiquity (empire of Axum) are not essential
oo  the report gives recognition to the existence of an Eritrean people
oo  there is the right for self-determination (SUKE, p.222-223).

Any referendum in Eritrea is suppressed
Such a referendum of the Eritrean people would include the questions about the future Eritrea with
oo  the integration in Ethiopia, or
oo  the federation with Ethiopia, or
oo  the self-determination as an independent state (SUKE, p.227).

East Berlin: Talks between representatives of Eritrea and Ethiopia
on initiative of the "USA". The talks are "without success" (SUKE, p.226).

February 1982
6th Ethiopian-"Soviet" offensive "Red Star" against Eritrea
Instead of the UNO report which stated that there can be no claim stated from Ethiopia on Eritrea there are over 100.000 soldiers sent against Eritrea:
oo  most massive bombings
oo  but no invasion in Nakfa (SUKE, p.41-42).

April 1983
7th Ethiopian-"Soviet" offensive against Eritrea: "Quiet offensive"
The aim is the attrition war on big scale. But EPLF is not getting involved with the guerrilla warfare (SUKE, p.42).


January 1984
Tessenai conquered by EPLF and looting of weapons
(SUKE, S.42).

During the year 1984 EPLF can push forward to the east up to the Red Sea and can occupy the Mersa Teklay bay.

This is the decisive turnaround. Lots of weapons, light and heavy ones, are conquered, tanks and artillery pieces. But the conquests cannot be hold (SUKE, p.42).

Relief funds from SUKE to the ERA
(= Swiss support committee for Eritrea (orig.: Schweizerisches Unterstützungskomitee für Eritrea). The money donations are transferred to the international coordination office of ERA in Cologne (SUKE, p.176-177).

ERA and the connections to the Western foreign countries
Collaboration with churchly and private organizations from the Scandinavian countries, above all Norway, but also Switzerland, West Germany and other countries of Europe, the "USA", Canada, Australia. These are mostly private, non governmental organizations, which partly receive state's money for humanitarian projects in Eritrea (SUKE, p.181).

First sanitary pad production plant in Eritrea
for the emancipation of the women. Until now the sanitary pads had been produced by hand in the refugee camp New Solomona. The machine for sanitary pads is financed by the Eritrean women organizations from abroad, above all from Eritrean women in Italy (SUKE, p.90).

Famine in Eritrea
The alphabetization program is working on low level only. Only about 15.000 women take part (SUKE, p.89).

[Famine by global dimming
Global dimming shows it's worst effects, and the "science" in this moment has no idea of the cause].

[Emigration and flight from Eritrea: Eritrean diaspora
The coincidence of war events and famine provokes an emigration of 1000s of Eritreans abroad. An Eritrean diaspora is formed, and accordingly they are celebrating their festivities].

since 1984
Relief organizations for Eritrea: ERA
The little African relief organization "Eritrean Relief Association" (ERA) is organizing the help for the Eritrean population. The big international relief organizations are not lifting any finger at all.

The ERA proves their capacities during the famine. The structure of volunteers hinders any form of corruption at minimal costs. Food ist transported from Sudan from Port Sudan to Eritrea (SUKE, p.169-170).

Percentage of women in the "men's professions"
The percentage of women in the workshops of the EPLF is between 15 and 42 % (SUKE, p.85).

vergrössern War fotos: The frustration of the Ethiopian army: "Scorched earth" - plus famine by drought
(from: www.ertra.com)

The events are the same like on the Est Front 1941-1945. The events are worse by a drought and by the global dimming...

At the same time one has to be careful what the fotos are showing, because also the EPLF was dependent on propaganda to get support.

Scorched earth: By frustration
                            Ethiopians destroy an Eritrean village
The Ethiopian army is committing the scorched earth...

Frustrated by the lack of battle field successes, burning villages and massacring the civilians in cool blood was a routine reaction of the Ethiopian army.

Scorched earth: By frustration Ethiopians destroy an Eritrean village.

Supplement: The foto shows a burnt round house, and in the background stays an intact round house.

Eritrea: Hurt children 24 and 25
Civilians including women and children were legitimate targets for the Ethiopian army.

Eritrea: Hurt children.

Supplement: The head bandage is not a head bandage but a foto composition. The bandages are all totally white without any stain of blood. When you amplify the foto by 500 % one can see cut heads.
Eritrea: Hurt children without clothes
Eritrea: Hurt children without clothes.

Supplement: The bandages are all suspiciously white. When you amplify the foto by 500 % one can see, that the girl without clothes has the right hand (you see the thumb) at the left arm.
Scorched earth: Dead victims in the
                            villages, covered 26
Frustrated by the lack of battle field successes, burning villages and massacring the civilians in cool blood was a routine reaction of the Ethiopian army.

Scorched earth: Dead victims in the villages, covered.

Supplement: This position of legs is not possible for a dead body.

Two dead bodies with
                            different points of death 27
Helicopters and MIG fighters made life during the day impossible.
Villages, buildings or any moving object in the liberated area was a military target.
All activities of the Eritreans were conducted under the cover of darkness at night

Two dead bodies with different points of death.

Supplement: The backs of the heads have already plant roots. So, the dead bodies were already buried. The upper head has no eye any more and is dead since months. The lower child's head seems to be a burn victim but yet has got his eyes.
Eritrea: Different dead bodies with
                            different points of death 28
Internationally prohibited chemical and cluster bombs were used to terrorize and inflict maximum damage under the civilians.

Eritrea: Different dead bodies with different points of death.

Supplement: The foto is arranged. The dead body at the top with a bended arm seems to have an intact body. The amplification shows eventually even a foto composition because the woman had three legs. The set up leg of the body in the middle with straddled skirt does not seem possible when a body is dead. The lower bodies seem to be dead since weeks already because marks on the skin are indications for rotten skin. The left hand of the first body is too little. The sideways posture of the body on the right side is not possible when the body is dead.
Eritrea resistance: Hospital open air 29

Medical care for civilians was a huge undertaking and stretched the medical resources of the movement to the limit.

Eritrea resistance: Hospital open air.

Drought in Eritrea: Dryed out soil
Drought in Eritrea by "global dimming"


This place used to contain water before the drought. No insects and no animals could survive in such a place.

Drought in Eritrea: Dried out soil.
Drought and famine in Eritrea:
                            Emaciated woman

The aid donor countries refused, for political reasons, to work with the "rebellions" (liberation movement) to support the famine victims in the liberated area.
Instead it asked the Ethiopian government to allow aid be transported to "rebel held areas". The Ethiopian government used food aid as a weapon and refused to provide a safe passage. Except few nongovernmental organizations, the world once again lets the Eritreans fall down.

Drought and famine in Eritrea: Emaciated woman.
Locust attack in Eritrea

The few farmers who were able to farm were overwhelmed by locust attack.

Locust attack in Eritrea.
Drought: Transport of relief supplies
                            by EPLF for Eritrea
4 und 5

The liberation movement mobilized the resources of all Eritreans abroad to deal with the threatening danger. The Eritreans, with few outside help, managed to avert and contain the danger.

Drought: Transport of relief supplies by EPLF for Eritrea.
Drought in Eritrea: Lorries in rank and
Drought in Eritrea: Lorries in rank and file.

EEritrea resistance: A drone is shoot
                            down Direct fight against the Ethiopian invasion army


Accurate anti aircraft fire prevented the Ethiopians from attacking the Eritrean fighters at the front.

Eritrea resistance: A drone is shoot down.
Eritrea resistance: A mine is placed in
                            occupied territory. 2

Skillful and courageous engineering units, deep behind enemy lines [a mine is installed].

Eritrea resistance: A mine is placed in occupied territory.
Eritrea resistance: Explosion of a
                            mine 3

The pay off.

Eritrea resistance: Explosion of a mine.
Eritrea: Resistance with anti-tank

[Resistance with bazookas]: No challenge can stop the determination to fight for independence.

Eritrea: Resistance with anti-tank guns.
Eritrea resistance: Transport of

[Resistance transport of wounded people]. Enthusiastic locals, determined to fight for their country.

Eritrea resistance: Transport of wounded.

End of 1985
8th Ethiopian-"Soviet" offensive against Eritrea: "Red Sea"
-- EPLF's resistance is successful with conquered weapons
-- EPLF is successful in pushing forward to the fortified garrisons of Asmara and Massaua
-- destruction of dozens of MiG jet fighters (SUKE, p.42).

20st January 1986
ERA general assembly
The assembly takes place in a small tributary valley during nightfall. There are collecting almost 400 people in a "congress hall" of stoned steps, very well masked and not visible from the top.

Conclusions for agricultural reconstruction:

-- dispersion of seeds, agriculture machinery, draft animals
-- new cultivation of land
-- appliance of new irrigation methods
-- reforestation and measures for soil protection
-- extension of the veterinarian service
-- extension of the agriculture schools
-- research about soil conservation, forestation and agriculture and irrigation methods.

Soil damaged by erosion are capable for rehabilitation, and relocation should not be necessary.

Corruption is not existing in
the ERA, but corruption is existing in the Ethiopian relief organizations (SUKE, p.173-175).

since February 1986

Construction of a school "WINA"
WINA is the name of an agriculture highland area in Eritrea (papayas, lemons, bananas).  Set up of a technical school for handicrafts for members of Christian and Islam religion. The school is bombed several times.

Day free of school is Wednesday as a compromise between the religions (SUKE, p.145-146).

Ethiopian prisoners of war in Eritrea
Directly behind the border ERA keeps about 7000 Ethiopian prisoners of wars who are fed by ERA. They receive the same food as EPLF members. They have an own medical supply, schools, workshops and cultural groups (SUKE, p.173).

Dismissed Ethiopian prisoners of war are homeless (!)
The Ethiopian government denies that there are Ethiopian prisoners of war. And the Ethiopian government maintains that EPLF would murder all prisoners of war. By this the government means to keep the soldiers off from dissertation.

Ethiopians who are dismissed from war captivity can only return to territories who are not under the Ethiopian government's control, or they can live in Sudan as refugees. Some prefer to stay with EPLF (SUKE, p.173).

[These events are the communist fighting scheme: Soldiers who get into captivity are defamed and disfranchised].

Balance 1890-1987
100 years colonial schools in Eritrea

-- interests and needs of the Eritrean population are never considered or satisfied in any phase

-- the European dominated education system is a tool for dressage: There is teached a foreign truth and "deafricanization" (SUKE, p.123)

-- Eritrean languages did not have further development because of the suppression, so until today there are missing expressions for abstract, scientific and technical coherences and can hardly be used for this  (!) (SUKE, p.133)

->> the schools of the colonialists did not serve to the society but only to the isolated foreign rulers, with cane beats and strap penalty

->> the pupils only are keen on omitting any penalty, and by this the aims for learning are only second priority for the pupils

->> EPLF is breaking through the suppression in the schools and is installing basic conditions to take off the feudal manacles (SUKE, p.126, 130-131).

10.5. Second unity congress of the EPLF

[At the same time perestroika begins in the "Soviet Union"].

19th March 1987
Second congress of EPLF in the freed territories with 1287 delegates
To the central committee are elected 6 women (from 71 members). This remains little.

Modification of the land program

-- partition of the whole economy in a public and a private sector
-- the big industries are nationalized

-- new civil right according to the women's emancipation is in project
-- facilitation of family possession with private agriculture

-- introduction of modern cultivation techniques and tools
-- set up of a net of consulting and experts, veterinary service

-- well constructioning, levee constructioning
-- developing of transport system
-- credit system with granting of credits

-- introduction of strategies to solve conflicts without losses

-- the diesa system is filled with new, democratic contents: Also to absent members of a village is assigned land
-- democratic performance of village assemblies

-- the nomads "Beni Amer" are accepted and their stock breeding is taken into the economic program. Problems are the overgrazing and the erosion of the soils.

Educational program

1. fight against illiteracy to liberate the Eritrean people from inexperience

2. guaranty of a general, compulsory school education up to the secondary school in the mother's language

3. set up of institutions for higher education in different areas in English language: Science, arts, technology, agriculture

4. Arab shall be a education subject in any levels

5. scholarships for students without means who needs support

6. set up of new schools above all in territories which had no schools until now

7. separation between school and church / religion

8. subordination of the schools under the state and free education

9. connection between education and production as a service for the masses

10. instruction for self-education and for self-managed further education

11. setting up good working conditions for experts and specialists so they can put their knowledge and abilities into the service of the masses

12. support of the exchange with other countries on the base of reciprocity and equality (SUKE, p.43, 61-62, 82, 95).

19th March 1987
Further points for the educational aim of

-- teaching of a progressive ideology, of love to the land and its humans

-- the history of the people and of the peoples shall be understood

-- pupils shall get to know enemies and friends

-- destruction of reactionary culture, development of a national and progressive culture without opportunism and without liberalism

-- development of artistic and literary capabilities

-- teaching of profound knowledge in geography with all economic, political and cultural aspects

-- teaching environment protection, teaching cultivation of resources

-- develop cogitation, teach a good base in mathematics

-- youth education in agriculture and handicrafts, link education and production, fight anti-working tendencies

-- teach hygiene and first aid

-- support creativity so also scientific problems can be resolved with it

-- support sports for a health youth which can to prove oneself also in production

-- teaching of readiness for cooperation, of consciousness, of intelligence (SUKE, p.131-132).

since 19th March 1987
State's program
-- set up of a state with a multiple party system with a national parliament which is elected democratically and free (change of the program of 1977)
-- free expression of opinion, freedom of the press, freedom of religion and assembly
-- block free policy
-- guaranty of a free development in economy, culture, religion and language for all ethnic groups (SUKE, p.154-155).

Economic program
-- development of a mixed economy with the control of the most important national resources and public services by the state

-- extensive agricultural reform which is adopted to the particularities of the farmers, cuttle breeders and agro pastoralists

-- support of the industry (SUKE, p.154-155).

-- planning of the resumption of the fish flour production, of the paper production and the sisal processing which had been stopped after 1941 by the English (SUKE, p.204)

-- democratic self-administration of the villages on the countryside (SUKE, p.162-163).


In Eritrea school material and school tools are missing
(SUKE, p.127).

Intimidation of the world's press and of the diplomacy against Eritrea
The world's meaning is propagating against Eritrea
-- a victory against Ethiopia would be impossible
-- in a perpetual war the Ethiopian side would always dominate because Ethiopia has access to according resources (SUKE, p.230).

Refugee camp Wad Sherifay in eastern Sudan near Kassala at the Eritrean-Sudanese border
There are about 100.000 refugees
-- with good food supply
-- with good medical support above all by the Swiss Red Cross.

But the refugees are without any perspective (SUKE, p.171).

Refugee camp
                  Wad Sherifay from Doctors without borders 1988
Refugee camp Wad Sherifay from Doctors without borders 1988

Refugee camp of the  ERA in Eritrea eastwards of Wad Sherifay
This camp is less perfect organized. But to the contrary the refugees are in a good mood:

-- the people are in the own country
-- the home villages can be reached in only one or two day's marches, and by this agriculture is possible there
-- after the Ethiopian bombings the villages are always reconstructed again (SUKE, p.171).

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11. Military victories of the EPLF against the troops of Ethiopia since 1988 - Ethiopia under Mengistu is again allying with Israel


EPLF conquerers
By this huge amounts of war material are captured.

Then there is installed a new military cooperation between EPLF and the Ethiopian opposition group TPLF, but ideological contradictions cannot be overcome.

There develop also good contacts to the OLF (SUKE, p.165, 210).

ERA congress: Warning from too much famine relief and lasting underdevelopment of the country

                          Afeworki, EPLFsecretary general in Eritrea,
                          foto from 1991.
Issayas Afeworki, EPLF secretary general in Eritrea, foto from 1991.

The EPLF general secretary Issayas Afeworki warns to accustom to the famine relief from abroad. The aim had to be the self supply of the country (SUKE, p.179).

The destructive programs of the "World Bank"
The programs of the "World Bank" never have programs for support of the weakest parts of the population in medicine and school (SUKE, p.192).

Intimidating western diplomacy against Eritrea
The diplomacy of the West is going on intimidating the Eritrean units with the propaganda that any fight against Ethiopia would be without hope:

-- Ethiopia had the biggest army of black Africa
-- for Eritrea a self-assertion would be possible only temporarily (SUKE, p.230).

Mengistu's stubbornness - the "Stalingrad" of the Ethiopian army
Mengistu continues persisting on a military occupation of Eritrea. Accordingly to this the EPLF is enforcing its operations:

-- EPLF is expanding the guerrilla war to a conventional war with the aid of conquered weapons

-- in March 1988 there is a preliminary offensive: Some 10.000 Ethiopian soldiers are surrounded and are destructively defeated

-- this is the "Stalingrad" for Mengistu resp. the "Dien Bien Phu" for the Ethiopian army

-- the Ethiopian troops withdraw from several Eritrean towns and take their last defendant positions around Keren and Asmara (SUKE, p.43).

It's the first time that Mengistu now considers also a peaceful solution, but preliminary talks have no success because Mengistu has unacceptable preliminary conditions (SUKE, p.43).

Mengistu claims for weapon delivery from China and North Korea
because from the "Soviet Union" he is not getting any more all what he wants (SUKE, p.216-217).

Eritrea: Refusing of mutilation and infibulation
The rate of refusing at feminine babies in rural areas of Rora Habab in the Sahel province is now almost 100 %. But the refusing of the mutilation of the labia is not yet 100 % (SUKE, p.75).

February 1988
3d congress of the NUEW women organization
The NUEW has 67.000 members: 50.000 in Eritrea, 17.000 abroad.

Because the illiteracy rate of Eritrean women is higher that 90 % yet the alphabetization shall be driven forward. It shall be inhibited that after a peace the women will be driven back into the stoves (SUKE, p.89, 97).

Successes of EPLF and TPLF in Tigray - rocking Ethiopian army
By the successful collaboration of EPLF and TPLF the successes are possible, but an ideological approximation between EPFL and TPLF is not possible.

In the meantime the Ethiopian army comes into inner troubles because of repression measures. There are first decomposition phenomenons and the defense is not uniform any more (SUKE, p.210, 225).


Last mobilization of Ethiopia
-- forced called up for military service of children
-- collapse of the Ethiopian economy
-- repression against the army.

The contradictions within the Ethiopian army are spreading and the decomposition is once and for all (SUKE, p.225).

A coup attempt at the top of the Ethiopian army is without success
(SUKE, p.225)

September 1989
Second talks between representatives of Ethiopia and Eritrea
this time in Atlanta ("USA"). The delegations of both sides agree further talks (SUKE, p.226).

December  1989
Talks Ethiopia - Eritrea
in Nairobi: There are fixed precise conditions for future peace talks (SUKE, p.226).

Ethiopian prisoners of war
Temporarily EPLF are keeping 12.000 Ethiopian prisoners of war directly behind the border line. They are supplied by ERA with the same food as for the EPLF members (SUKE, p.173).


1st January 1990
Release of 10.000 Ethiopian prisoners of war
The homecoming for Ethiopians has simplified because wide territories are not controlled by the government any more (SUKE, p.173).

Beginning of 1990
The Ethiopian government misuses the international famine help
The misuse is obvious: The state's Ethiopian relief organization RRC (Relief and Rehabilitation Commission) has degenerated to a "corrupt pile, which is serving the militaries" (newspaper Die Zeit, 13th April 1990):

-- 1000s of tons of grain is storing open air in the town of Nazareth and is not protected enough against humidity and rats

-- at the other hand in the store houses for food are housed 40.000 recruits as an improvisation

->> the grain is partly eaten by the recruits instead to give it to the starving population

->> in the harbour town Assab are roting some 90.000 tons of grain of the famine relief

->> the UNO relief organizations and the European Union, the deliverer, are not protesting because they fear diplomatic complications when they would claim

->> also the international press shows no reaction (SUKE, p.179-180).

8th February 1990
Surprise attack of the EPLF against Ethiopian positions
-- Eritrean liberation fighters overrun the defense positions of the Ethiopian army
-- another group pushes against the occupied Massaua
-- a third group attacks the marine port of Massaua (SUKE, p.43-44, 225).

10th February 1990
EPLF invasion in Massaua - the lies of the Mengistu government

-- EPLF can conquer huge amounts of military material

-- the international press spreads against Eritrea that now the last supply line against the hunger would be interrupted

-- the Ethiopian foreign minister Tesfaye Dinka utters that the "latest offensive of the EPFL would be a severe threat to the starving civil population"...

->> all is a theater and lie because the Mengistu government itself has blocked the emergency help for the liberated territories of Eritrea and Tigray: The help only reached partly the civil population

->> the Ethiopian army is going on with selling the aid grain in Asmara for 50 Ethiopian Birr per 100 kg! (SUKE, p. 165, 180).

March 1990 ca.
->> journalists who never have seen EPLF territories are going on with their lies to spread the Ethiopian lies maintaining that EPLF would make policy on the back of the population (SUKE, p.181).

UNO [bribed by the "USA"] resigns to cooperation with the EPLF (!)
The EPLF offers to the UNO secretary general that UNO could use the port of Massaua for relief supply transports, and also transports of relief supplies through Sudan to Asmara would be possible.
->> The UNO secretary general keeps quiet
->> the Ethiopian Mengistu government is disgusted and says No (SUKE, p.181).

[It's not excluded that an aversion against the EPFL flag with its five pointed star plays a certain role here].

Ethiopia is launching napalm bombs and cluster bombs on Massaua
As a reaction for the liberation of Massaua Ethiopian bombers launch bombs on the island, napalm and cluster bombs.
->> 100s of deads
->> there is no protest of the big relief organizations! (SUKE, p.181).

[As it seems Ethiopia is always trusting yet to the looser tactics of the "USA" in Vietnam...]

The big relief organizations stay before the decision
between diplomatic pressure of Ethiopia or collaboration with the ERA (SUKE, p.181).

April 1990 ca.
The "Soviet Union" withdraws - Israel is new and old alliance for Ethiopia's Mengistu
"Soviet Union" and GDR are finishing with the support for the Mengistu regime. Israel with its Mossad "specialists" is new and old partner of Mengistu (SUKE, p.44).

->> this is Zionist imperialism (SUKE, p.211) [in the name of the general war of Israel against Islam, whereas Eritrea is half Christian orientated]

->> Israel is providing weapon supply for Ethiopia... (SUKE, p.218).

16th April 1990
EPLF warns the Israeli responsibles of direct interventions in Eritrea
(SUKE, p.44)

EPLF has liberated farmers and women and with this a big part of the population stands behind EPLF and is educating the population to democracy. Consciousness and the organization level are hindering a fail (SUKE, p.166-167).

The opposition groups of Ethiopia
seem to recognize an independence of Eritrea (SUKE, p.210).

OAU since presidency of Mubarak: for Eritrea

But some countries are staying against Eritrea:
-- Libya and South Yemen stay against Eritrea
-- Saudi Arabia supports an Eritrean splinter group to weaken the EPLF (SUKE, p.211)
-- the Arab League is behaving passively.

Kuwait and the Emirates support a peaceful solution in Eritrea politically and financially.

Only slowly the thought is putting through that Ethiopia is a black colonial power (SUKE, p.213).

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12. Overthrow and corruption in Ethiopia with Israel after 1990 - recognition for Eritrea

June 1990 ca.
Mengistu is threatened from the inner - Israel as an accomplice
In Ethiopia the different population groups begin to feud and to fight each other. By this Mengistu is threatened more and more by his own compatriots.

->> Mengistu is not acting any more from the position of strength

->> Ethiopian resistance organizations and organizations of suppressed nations are leading their fight more and more to the main town Addis Abeba (SUKE, p.226)

->> Mengistu hopes that the traditional military relations to Israel with the Israeli war instructors and the material delivery can change the situation another time (SUKE, p.227).

Recognition for Eritrea in the world press and diplomacy
Only after the military victory Eritrea gets a treatment with diplomacy and respect by the world press:

-- the recognition is an important factor in Eritrea and in the whole region, also the recognition by representatives of the "US" Foreign Office

-- Eritrea gets recognition also by the rightful treatment of the Ethiopian prisoners of war

-- now the belief puts through that EPLF would be a stable factor when the Mengistu regime is collapsing and Ethiopia would get into a destabilized phase after Mengistu (SUKE, p.231).

Conditions of the EPFL for the relief organizations

EPLF has guidelines that all humans have equal rights:

-- the less privileged parts of the population have to profit from the projects

-- the population has to be integrated in the work of the projects in all levels of the project, also in the management, and from the beginning

-- technical and administrative personal has to be educated in a way the the project can be taken over by the Eritreans completely

-- the aim of all projects - short-run or long-run - has to be not only the improvement of the life situation of the population but the projects have to be a contribution to the general development of the country, and if possible, also to the self supply (SUKE, p.205).

Self supply of Eritrea is enforced against the two super powers "USA" and Russia and their strategic aims on the "horn of Africa"
(SUKE, p.218)

Balance 1945-1990
Eritrea had never been taken earnest, and all responsibles of the world is pushing this huge violation of human rights to the back the mind
"Though we have right and justice on our side nobody wanted to speak with us until we proved that we could win."

"Obwohl wir Recht und Gerechtigkeit auf unserer Seite haben, wollte niemand mit uns reden, bis wir bewiesen haben, dass wir gewinnen können." (SUKE, p.230)

To win is important, not the right: Also the law of nations has only second priority. It only becomes effective when one can prove that the power is behind oneself (SUKE, p.231).


People's vote about the independence of Eritrea: 90 % voting for independence
The vote is monitored internationally.

Data about the new Eritrea
The new flag of Eritrea
vergrössernThe new flag of Eritrea

[As the forests have been partly radically deforested to make any "guard" for the enemy impossible one has to plant many new trees now].

Eritrea is 3 fold as big as Switzerland, about as big as Austria (SUKE, p.13).

-- half Christians, half Muslims, the Christians parted into 95 % Coptic Orthodox and 5 % Catholics and Protestants)
-- little minorities are nature religions (SUKE, p.15-16)
-- resting day is Wednesday as a compromise between Christians and Muslims (SUKE, p.16).

Languages in Eritrea
-- three Semitic languages: Tigrinya, Tigre and Arab
-- four Hamitic languages: Saho, Bilen, Afar and Gewa (Hedareb)
-- two Nilotic languages: Nara (Baria) and Kunama / Baza (SUKE, p.16).

and Tigre are written with the Semitic church writing Geez with 300 letters. The transcription into the Latin letters with only 22 letters is in discussion (SUKE, p.18-19).

1996 / 1997
The last Ethiopian attacks against Eritrea are happening in 1996 / 1997 yet
By the repeated Ethiopian attacks a part of the Eritrean reforms is thrown back, and elections which were projected for that time could not be held. Ethiopia is not stopping to have a destructive effect on Eritrea.

But then time is calm more or less. According to testimonies to the author there are immense social tensions. Family members don't have the courage to go home, because they had been on the "wrong side" etc. Human rights are missing yet...

And war again

In 2000 Ethiopia is starting again an invasion which can be rebuffed. Important industrial plants are destroyed with it.

Eritrea on his part is using "American" funds which are defined for road constructions for weapon purchase.

In the year 2004 the situation on the border line between Eritrea and Ethiopia is escalating again almost to the war.

In the year 2005 Ethiopia and Eritrea are escalating their dictatorial conditions, and Eritrea even forces UN observers to leave the country.

There are missing the human rights. As it seems both sides can read war instructions for military war, but they cannot read the human rights?

The slow development of a normal life in Eritrea

Asmara: Second hand
                              furniture market 2003 Children
                              on the market Medeber in Asmara 2003 Asmara:
                              Cathedral Nda Mariam of the Orthodox
                              church 2003
vergrössernAsmara: Second hand furniture market 2003
vergrössernChildren on the market Medeber in Asmara 2003
vergrössernAsmara: Cathedral Nda Mariam of the Orthodox church 2003

One of
                              the few traditional houses in Asmara Bicycle
                              race in Asmara 2003 Steam
                              train from Asmara to Nefasit 2003
vergrössernOne of the few traditional houses in Asmara
vergrössernBicycle race in Asmara 2003
vergrössernSteam train from Asmara to Nefasit 2003

Massawa / Massaua
Massawa / Massaua in the 1960ies with
                            Ethiopian flags Massawa old town Massawa: Traditional houses 2003
vergrössernMassawa / Massaua in the 1960s with Ethiopian flags
vergrössernMassawa old town
vergrössernMassawa: Traditional houses 2003

Closing words

At least the Ethiopian terror
and the "American" Russian Israeli terror

at the "horn of Africa" comes to an end.

Switzerland only after long law-suits is giving the dictator's funds from Africa and Asia.

Is there a compensation for Eritrea?
Is there a commemoration day?

Both does not exist...

The Free Mason financiers of the "USA" are never punished for their world manipulation they committed by financing communism. Also the Swiss bankers are never punished. The government in Berne says about the accumulation of money by dictators, who are robbing whole populations, simply: This is "financial center Switzerland" and "neutrality".

As it seems "American" and Swiss bankers are working hand in hand.
The bankers are not awake to any guilt. Is there a judge?

Has anybody made a calculation which damage Eritrea has suffered 1880-1990? Who pays that?

The nations who have caused the damage are naming themselves the "First World"...

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Portraits: Women from different ethnic groups of Eritrea: http://home.wxs.nl/~hans.mebrat/eritrea-people.htm
Flag of EPLF with five pointed star: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/eplf.htm

Refugee camp Wad-Sherifay: http://medecinetropicale.free.fr/refugie2.html

Map of Eritrea: Position: http://www.mydivetravel.com/Travel/Country.asp?ID=431
Map of Eritrea in Ethiopia incorporated 1970ies: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2001/ethiopia.jpg
Map of Eritrea: http://unimaps.com/eritrea/
Map of Eritrea little: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/assab.htm

Map of Eritrea: Map of heights: http://www.grida.no/eis-ssa/contry/eritrmap.htm
Map of Eritrea: Provinces: http://www.freewebs.com/eritrea2001/infocenter.htm
Map of Eritrea: Rainfall: http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/Eritrea.htm
Map of Eritrea: Ethnic groups: http://home.wxs.nl/~hans.mebrat/eritrea-people.htm
Map of Massawa / Massaua: http://home.planet.nl/~hans.mebrat/eritrea-massawa.htm

Map of Tigray with Aksum / Axum: http://home.wxs.nl/~hans.mebrat/eritrea-ethiopia.htm

Map of Sudan: http://www.forceten.org.au/html/projects_sudan.html

OAU: Flag, detail: http://www.survivorsunited.com/au3.html
OAU: Poster of the foundation meeting: http://home.intekom.com/southafricanhistoryonline/pages/chronology/thisday/1963-05-25.htm

Keren: camels: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2004/eritrea517.htm

War fotos: Examples 1977 and 1978:
http://www.ertra.com/History_pictures/military_1.htm; generell: www.ertra.com
War fotos: Fotos from retreat areas: http://www.ertra.com/History_pictures/history.htm; generell: www.ertra.com
War fotos: Frustrated Ethiopian army - "scorched earth" plus famine by drought:

Portrait: Woldeab Woldemariam: http://www.gre.ac.uk/~bd09/his.html
Portrait: King of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie: http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Ethiopia/shoa6.htm
Portrait: King Umberto from Italy: http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/umberto1italyalbum.htm
Portrait: Khedive Ismail: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2001/543/chrncls.htm
Portrait: James Bruce: http://www.visitdunkeld.com/bruce-explorer.htm
Portrait: Werner Munzinger: http://www.richardwolf.de/latein/dillmann.htm
Portrait: Menilek II.: http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog61/kshively/development.html
Portrait: Mengistu: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/553257.stm
Portrait: Issayas Afeworki: http://www.lemonde.fr/web/illustration/0,32-0,40-639254,0.html

Language: Tigrinia, moon poem: http://www.meskot.com/werHi_werHi.htm
Language: Amharisch, fable: http://cas1.elis.rug.ac.be/avrug/illtal/amharic.htm
Language: Tigre, example of a text: http://www.language-museum.com/t/tigre.htm

Road Massawa / Massaua - Asmara through the mountains: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2003/eritrea-2003-1025.htm

Flag of Eritrea: http://www1.ocn.ne.jp/~infinite/Download.html

Asmara: Children on the market of Medeber: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2003/eritrea-2003-1022.htm
Asmara: Orthodox cathedral Nda Mariam: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2003/eritrea-2003-1021.htm
Asmara: Second hand furniture market: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2003/eritrea-2003-1021.htm
Asmara: Traditional house: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2003/eritrea-2003-1026.htm
Asmara: Bicycle race: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2004/eritrea516.htm

Steam train Asmara-Nefasit: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2003/eritrea-2003-1018.htm

Massawa 1960is with Ethiopian flags: http://www.trainweb.org/eritrean/scrapbook/where/massawa/massawa-island.html
Massawa old town: http://home.wxs.nl/~hans.mebrat/eritrea-massawa3.htm
Massawa: Traditional houses: http://www.asmera.nl/eritrea2003/eritrea-2003-1023.htm

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