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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jews in the "USA" 05: 1920-1929

New anti-Semitism wave and discriminations - Johnson Act limiting immigration by law - Yiddish culture capitalist speculation wave at the stock exchange

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol.
                15, col. 1653: Headline of one of the anti-Semitic
                articles in Henry Ford's weekly "The Dearborn
                Independent". Dearborn, Mich., May 22, 1920. All
                ford dealers were required to sell the paper.
Mr. Ford newer saw that the "Christ" is the World's Problem...

from: Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): USA; vol. 15

presented by Michael Palomino (2008)

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[Anti-Semitism in the criminal racist "USA" since 1920: stereotypes - the unity of 1914-1918 is broken - propaganda literature - racist Henry Ford with 7 years campaign]

<The emergence of overt anti-Semitism in the Frank case [[murdered in 1915]] was a harbinger [[signal]] of an upsurge of anti-Jewish feeling, expression, and actions during the 1920s. The hatreds against Jews were rooted both in older stereotypes and renewed economic anti-Semitism which was an element in the outlook of some of the Populist, the movement of protest against capitalism and monopoly which was powerful in the southern and western states at the turn of the century. Jewish capital was identified with "Wall Street" and oppression by the financial system of farmers and small businessmen. Some of the then young Populists, such as the later Senator Burton K. Wheeler from Montana, were to remain anti-Jewish on such economic grounds into the 1930s. Anti-Semitism did not involve all of Populism, but what there was of such prejudice represented its only appearance  in American history within an important left-wing movement.

The artificially stimulated unity of World War I cracked under the impact of postwar disillusionment, and a sense of imminent (col. 1652)

danger from internal and external subversive forces seized the nation The old way of life appeared to be disappearing under the onslaught of the foreign born, the city, the new moral relativism, and liberal religion. Many Americans adopted ideologies stressing coercive political and religious fundamentalism and sought scapegoats for the ills, real and imaginary, that beset them. Anti-Semitism was part of this reaction. Although incidents of anti-Semitism during America's participation in World War I were sporadic, a new wave of nativist nationalism gripped the land. Foreign radicalism, often associated with Jews, became the chief target in the postwar "Red Scare" of 1919-20. This alleged Jewish-Bolshevik nexus remained a permanent part of anti-Semitic propaganda.

The concern of Jews over these charges was heightened considerably by the appearance of an American edition of the spurious Protocols of the *Elders of Zion in 1920, followed by a work based on it, The Cause of World Unrest. The basic message of these volumes was that the Bolshevik Revolution was Jewish in origin and part of an international Jewish conspiracy to destroy Christendom and dominate the world. Discredited by serious investigators, these libels nevertheless remained alive. In May 1920 The Dearborn Independent, a magazine owned and published by Henry Ford, the automobile magnate, launched an anti-Semitic propaganda campaign without precedent in the United States which lasted, with varying intensity, for almost seven years.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                          "USA", vol. 15, col. 1653: Headline
                          of one of the anti-Semitic articles in Henry
                          Ford's weekly "The Dearborn
                          Independent". Dearborn, Mich., May 22,
                          1920. All ford dealers were required to sell
                          the paper.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1653: Headline of one of the anti-Semitic articles in Henry Ford's weekly "The Dearborn Independent". Dearborn, Mich., May 22, 1920. All ford dealers were required to sell the paper.

"The Ford International Weekly
One Dollar - Dearborn, Michigan, May 22, 1920 - Five Cents
The International Jew: The World's Problem"

[[Who says that Jews would be a "problem" has never detected what a "problem" the stupid and racist "Christians" are in the world destroying and discriminating all other cultures worldwide...]]

Charging American Jews with a plot to subvert traditional American ways, Ford's propaganda found acceptance in rural areas and small towns, but met a negative reaction in the large urban areas and among leading American policy and opinion makers. Notwithstanding such condemnations as that of January 16, 1921, when a declaration, signed by 119 leading Americans, headed by President Wilson and former president Taft, denounced the anti-Jewish calumnies,

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                          "USA", vol. 15, col. 1654: The
                          protest of non-Jewish leaders against
                          anti-Semitic propaganda in the [[racist]]
                          U.S., Jan. 16, 1921, as reported in "The
                          New York Times". The 119 signatories were
                          headed by President Wilson and the former
                          President Taft. Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1654: The protest of non-Jewish leaders against anti-Semitic propaganda in the [[racist]] U.S., Jan. 16, 1921, as reported in "The New York Times". The 119 signatories were headed by President Wilson and the former President Taft.



A Notable Document Signed by Distinguished Americans, Led by President, Put on Record.


Originated by John Spargo, Leaders of Thought Readily Signed it, Some of Them Adding Personal Comment."

Ford's campaign continued unchecked until in 1927, under pressure of an unofficial consumer boycott and several lawsuits, Ford issued a public apology through Louis Marshall, head of the American Jewish Committee.

However, the Protocols and The International Jew [[published by the racist Henry Ford, see col. 1626]] persisted as staple items in the arsenal of American anti-Semitism in succeeding decades. The stereotype of the international Jewish banker-Bolshevik had been superimposed on the earlier stereotype of anti-Christ, Shylock, and Rothschild.> (col. 1653)

[New anti-Semitism because of Jewish Communist groups - popular racism - financed racism by Henry Ford]

<The United States' turn toward isolationism, the "Red Scare" of 1919-21, and the surge of nativism and anti-urbanism during the 1920s bore serious consequences for U.S. Jewry as a great wave of anti-foreignism and fervor for "Americanization", propagated in the press, books, and the public schools, bore down hard on Jewish cultural distinctiveness. Jews were prominent among political (col. 1625)

radicals of all shades, few of whom felt anything but indifference or hostility to their Jewish origins, but anti-Semitism in the United States in lurid tones tied Jews as a body to "Bolshevism" and political radicalism, which were regarded as public enemies. The canard of an international Jewish plot to overthrow Western civilization spread wide.

[[This "Western" civilization was nothing else than racism, Darwinism, exploitation, destruction of nature, extermination of the natives and "classical" music of Mozart and Strauss during smoking a cigar with a whiskey in the hands...]]

At the same time doctrines of the inferiority of specific racial types became widely accepted in academic as well as popular thinking. This philosophy had a vigorous proponent [[supporter]] of unlimited financial means in the automobile magnate Henry *Ford, who published the Dearborn Independent and the International Jew in millions of copies until forced by a lawsuit in 1927 to cease and to retract his statements. (col. 1626) [[...]]

[[Later Henry Ford was a big adherent of Hitler's racism. Ford was one of the big who financed the Hitler regime. Ford even got a Nazi order]].

[Ku Klux Klan movement: 4,000,000 members in 1924]

The hooded [[disguised]] southern society of the *Ku Klux Klan, refounded about 1915, spread far beyond its original locale in the South to the Middle West and even the East, propagating anti-Semitism alongside its racism and anti-Catholicism. It gained short-lived political power in some states. Public revulsion [[change]] at the Klan's corruption and weariness with its antics [[criminal actions]] caused the organization virtually to disappear by 1927. (col. 1626) [[...]]

[[But the details are not so simple]]:

<The most significant expression of American nativism during the 1920s was the spectacular revival of the Ku Klux Klan which, at its height in 1924, counted over 4,000,000 member in all parts of the country. Although its primary targets in the defense of "one hundred percent Americanism" were Catholics and Negroes, Klan leaders in their propaganda also included Jews as one of the chief obstacles to the preservation of the "real America". Thus, the Klan of the 1920s was the first substantial, organized mass movement in which anti-Semitism was utilized. Politically ineffective except as an adjunct to the immigration restriction movement, the Klan never proposed a specific anti-Jewish program, but sporadic boycotts of Jewish merchants and similar harassments did occur before the collapse of Klan power in the late 1920s [[by 1927]].> (col. 1653)

[Separated Jewish settlement]

<Social discrimination reached new heights in the 1920s as Jews continued to be the most rapidly rising ethnic group in American (col. 1653)

society. Although Jewish leaders had obtained passage of a civil rights statute applying to places of public accommodation in New York in 1913, and subsequently in other states, exclusion of Jews from summer resorts and hotels continued unabated. Particularly galling [[molesting]] to upper-class Jews was their exclusion from social clubs, both of the city and country types. As Jews began to leave the crowded immigrant quarters of the large cities, they tended to settle in concentrated areas, partly in response to residential discrimination. Jews with high incomes found themselves unwelcome in the fashionable sections of the cities and in many suburban developments.> (col. 1654)

[Restricted immigration since Johnson Act of 1924/1925]

By far the most important result of these movements was the Johnson Act of 1924 restricting immigration, which took effect in several stages beginning in 1925. An earlier immigration act of 1921 established the principle of the national origins quota, by providing that the number of immigrants to be admitted in any year was not to exceed 3% of their respective native land's stock (i.e., immigrants and their children) residing in the United States in 1910. Following vigorous agitation by racist intellectuals like Prescott F. Hall and Madison Grant, and their ally Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, and by Southern and Western nativist opponents of foreign immigration, the Johnson Act was passed in 1924. Its provisions were founded on a belief in "Nordic" (Northern and Western European: English, Irish, German Scandinavian) superiority over Mediterraneans, Slavs, Orientals, and Jews, for it not only limited yearly immigration to 154,000 but gave overwhelming preference to immigrants from Northern and Western Europe. This was accomplished by setting the quota at 5% of the foreign stock living in the United States in 1890, a census year before "undesirable" Slavic and Mediterranean elements were heavily represented in the population.

Thus, only 5,982 immigrants could be admitted yearly from Poland, 2,148 from Russia, and 749 from Rumania [[Romania]]. A prospective immigrant was categorized for quota purposes by his land of birth so that, for example, a Jew born in Poland who spent his life in England was a Pole under the Johnson Act. The only means of reaching the United States outside the Quota was by affidavits guaranteeing support submitted by relatives in the U.S. The quota system, worked out in detail during the late 1920s, closed off the great stream by which almost 2,500,000 Jews came to the United States between 1880 and 1925. The effect of the Johnson Act, therefore, was to hasten the day when the majority of U.S. Jews were native born, which was around 1940. 

[Jewish careers provoking anti-Semitism - discriminations and quota system restrictions on universities - criminal racist "USA" blocking higher education for Jews - new unions]

<Racist and nativist movements became rife during a period of massive movement of Jews out of the immigrant quarters into newer, more attractive urban districts, and out of immigrant trades into commercial, clerical, and professional occupations. During the prosperity of the 1920s large numbers of young Jews, children of immigrant parents reaching maturity, tended to enter the professions of law, medicine, dentistry, teaching, and to some extent social work. As far as can be reckoned, the largest trend was toward small, independent business and clerical, managerial ("white-collar") employment. It was in this connection that anti-Semitism in the U.S. assumed the most directly (col. 1626)

injurious forms. Large insurance companies, banks, retail chains, law firms, and large companies generally did not employ Jews, with the exception of a few who had no chance of advancement in the positions they held. Private colleges and universities habitually imposed quotas on Jewish student admissions, usually between 5% and 10%. Most rigorous were anti-Semitic restrictions in almost all medical schools which forced many intelligent and capable young Jews to study abroad.

[[The model of restrictions in the medical schools was not singular: "Neutral" Switzerland also had prohibitions on universities for medicine studies - against all foreigners - up to the 1990s]].

Anti-Semitism in the medical profession also applied to opportunities for specialty training and appointment to hospital staffs, even in public institutions. The Jewish hospitals founded late in the 19th century for the needs of Jewish patients became devoted from the 1920s to alleviating [[come down with]] the plight of the Jewish physicians.

College and university faculties were with few exceptions closed to Jews, and Jewish teachers could usually secure employment in public schools only in the largest cities.

These occupational trends into clerical, managerial, entrepreneurial, and professional employment coincided with the gradual departure of Jews from the heretofore Jewish trades, mainly in the garment industry.By the 1930s Jews constituted only two-fifths of the membership of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union and the number in the Amalgamated Clothing Workers dropped, although the leadership continued to be Jewish. A similar Jewish union arose during the 1920s, the Fur and Leather Workers Union. These unions were torn by factional disputed between Communist and anti-Communist groups.> (col. 1627)

[Quota systems against the Jews in education facilities - discrimination from higher education and from higher professions]

<The form of social discrimination which concerned Jews most directly occurred in higher education, which they sought in larger numbers and earlier than any other immigrant group as the key to economic and cultural advancement. Eastern colleges in particular were faced with increasing waves of Jewish students and reacted by establishing quota systems under a variety of guises [[reasons]]. Once admitted, Jewish students often faced social aloofness [[separation]] and resistance, and responded by the formation of Jewish fraternities. Educational discrimination became a national issue in June 1922 when President A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard College announced that Harvard was considering a quota system for Jewish students. Jewish leaders reacted strongly to this open evidence of prejudice, and Lowell's proposal was rejected by a Harvard faculty committee in April 1923. Defeated in its most blatant form, the quota system survived at Harvard and at most other leading colleges indirectly through various underhanded techniques.

Jews encountered considerable resistance as they attempted to move into white-collar and professional positions. Employers increasingly specified that Christians were preferred for office, sales, and executive positions. Banking, insurance, and public utilities firms were in the forefront of anti-Jewish prejudice. In medicine, the most ardently desired profession for Jews, there was a steady decline in the proportion of Jewish applicants accepted to medical schools during the 1920s and 1930s. In addition, Jewish doctors faced considerable difficulties in securing internships and staff positions in hospitals.

Law schools did not discriminate (col. 1654)

against Jewish applicants, but Jewish lawyers were generally not accepted into large, well-established firms. Jews increasingly entered the teaching profession, especially where open, competitive examinations were required, but they were virtually excluded from faculty positions in American universities throughout the 1920s and 1930s.> (col. 1655)

[Yiddish culture at it's peak and coming down - Hebrew culture coming up - literature]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA",
                  vol. 15, col. 1627: First issue of the New York Hebrew
                  daily "Hadoar", Nov. 1, 1921, cover.
                  Jerusalem, J.N.U.L.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1627: First issue of the New York Hebrew daily "Hadoar", Nov. 1, 1921, cover. Jerusalem, J.N.U.L.

The 1920s were the ripest years of Yiddish culture. There were 11 Yiddish theaters in New York City and 17 elsewhere in the United States which, during a one-month period in the fall of 1927, presented 645 performances of 85 plays, many of high artistic quality. The Yiddish school system also reached its peak during these years, enrolling approximately 12,000 children, while such a Yiddish organization as the Workmen's Circle (Arbeter Ring) attained its maximum membership of about 80,000. Symptomatic of future decline, however, was the lowered circulation of the Yiddish press from its 1915 peak.

Hebrew culture attracted a devoted but much smaller following, organized in the Histadruth Ivrit of America and publishing the weekly Hadoar ; Hebraists were particularly prominent in the rabbinate and Jewish education.

During the 1920s Jews began to appear in *U.S. literature. Novels about Jewish immigrant life appeared in English, while persons like Gertrude *Stein and Maxwell *Bodenheim were literary modernists. Such *publishers as Alfred A. *Knopf and Horace *Liveright specialized in issuing the best of contemporary literature. The first U.S. (col. 1627)

Jewish literary magazine, the Menorah Journal, began publication in 1915 and enjoyed its most distinguished years of "fostering the Jewish 'humanities' " during the 1920. At a different cultural level, the advent of mass film entertainment in the United States was largely the doing of Jewish producers and entrepreneurs who made Hollywood the world's film capital after 1920. Poor immigrants like Adolph Zukor, Carl *Laemmle, Louis B. *Mayer, Lewis J. *Selznick, Jesse L. Lasky, and the *Warner brothers developed *motion pictures into a worldwide entertainment industry, and made themselves and others multimillionaires. Yet the participation of Jews on a major scale in U.S. culture lay in the future.> (col. 1628)

[[Addition:  Speculation wave
In the late 1920s the industrial production after the war and the colonialist capitalist system provoked a worldwide new speculation wave so the collapse of the stock exchange could be foreseen. Many bankers of this racist capitalist system were ... Jews (parts of the the Darwinist capitalist animals), and many of the victims of the coming economic crisis were ... also Jews (the Jews of the middle class and the workers)]].

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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                          "USA", vol. 15, col. 1625-1626
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1625-1626
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                          "USA", vol. 15, col. 1627-1628
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1627-1628

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                          "USA", vol. 15, col. 1651-1652
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1651-1652
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                          "USA", vol. 15, col. 1653-1654
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1653-1654
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971):
                          "USA", vol. 15, col. 1655-1656
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): "USA", vol. 15, col. 1655-1656

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