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Colonialism in Chronology - chapter III

"American" Holocaust in Central and South "America"

Massacres, "Christianizations" and exploitation fulfilling an order of the Pope and of the Crown 1492-1558

3.4. The "American" Holocaust in Mexico

Feathered headdress of Aztec ruler Moctezuma
Feathered headdress of Aztec ruler Moctezuma [90]:
This trophy is in Vienna until today (2005)...

by Michael Palomino (2005)

translation by Michael Palomino in 2014

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Content

28.1. Spanish invasion against the Aztec Empire under Cortés - at the same time Magellan is sailing around the world

28.2. The destruction of the fleet for hindering any return - Cortez "liberating" the Totonacs - intimidation with canons an horses - "liberation" of Tlaxcala - the horse as a factor against the natives

28.3. Supplement: Moctezuma and Aztecs  

29. Plundering the Aztec treasury and "distribution" of the gold: 80% for Cortés - quarrel about a cross on the temple's pyramid in Tenochtitlán - Moctezuma lets detain his nephew

30. Holocaust on Hispañola - the cross on the temple pyramid in Tenochtitlán is unacceptable - Aztec war declaration against the Spaniards - Magellan is blocked in Patagonia by snow - Cortés promising his departure - natives constructing four new ships for the Spaniards - Spanish Crown wants to detain Cortés occupying Veracruz - Cortés raiding Veracruz convincing the royal soldiers for a second campaign against the Aztecs

31. Spanish occupants destroying the temple under leadership of Alvarado - rebellion of the population, or: preventive detention of Moctezuma, or: arbitrary massacre - rebellion - second invasion of Cortés with additional white troops - Moctezuma is murdered by the natives as a puppet of the white - siege of the "Spanish District" - the Aztec leader is murdered - Spanish withdrawal "noche triste" ["sad night"]

32. Spanish victory on the open field against Aztec warriors - new war preparations under Cortés against the Aztecs with sailboats - the Aztecs dumping the golden treasure in the lake - smallpocks in Tenochtitlán - Luther writing about policy, against dogmas of the papal church describing new ethic rules - Luther burning the papal bull getting more and more followers - Magellan loosing his way in the cliffs at the southern tip of South "America" - provision ship flying - the Pacific

33. First "scientific" reports about natives

34. Magellan's expedition crossing the Pacific - Tenochtitlán sieged - Magellan reaching Guam and Cebu - conversion of the sultan in Cebu - the sultan urging Magellan subduing the Mactanese - death of Magellan on Cebu by Mactanese superiority

35. Continuation of Magellan's expedition - again losses between two sultans - two ships leaving - war between Charles V-Francis I - Spanish-native troops sieging Tenochtitlán - pestilence, fire and destruction - reports about the Spanish occupation

36. Luther is outlawed - Habsburg becomes Spanish - Spanish expedition in Florida and to Yucatán - horror pictures about Aztecs - Aztecs were believing above all to nature's symbols - the simulation of Christianity becomes normal - loss and destruction of the native's culture in Mexico - Luther translating the New Testament - Portuguese ships fighting the Magellan expedition

37. Slave rebellion on "Hispañola" and Cuba - Cortés becoming a governor of Mexico - the fleet of France capturing the gold of Mexico - expansion of "New Spain" under Cortés - project of the occupation of Peru under Pizarro - arrival of one ship of Magellan's fleet in Spain

38. Spain: development of the "Conquista technique"

39. Robbery and trade of gold and silver wold wide in about 1520. Scheme

40. History of chocolate in "America", Africa and Europe

41. Luther's "September Bible", Luther German, and protestant schooling

42. Spanish military campaigns against Maya natives and the destruction of the Aztec culture in Mexico - "Christian" Mexico

43. French-Italian alliance for an own "western way" - Huaxtecs remain undefeated - destruction of the Maya culture under Alvarado in Guatemala - first Spanish expedition in Peru is failing [using the country road]

44. French search for a western way in North "America" without success - Sevilla becoming a monopoly port - Da Gama dying in India - Spanish occupation of Quiche natives - Alvarado becoming a nobleman - Pizarro's first expedition to Peru on the sea - Cortés occupying Honduras

45. World wide trade net of the Fugger family - Francis I is detained by Charles V - Spanish Moluccas journeys failing - Spanish expedition under Gomez to the coast lines of North "America" - breakdown of the last Aztec resistance and mass baptisms - Spanish subjugation of Guatemala - Incas under Huascar - Spanish "foundations of towns" in Panama - Christianization in Mexico under the Franciscan Olmos - beginning of systematic slave trade

46. New war between Charles V and Francis I - Spanish settlements in North "America" - defense of Maya natives on Yucatán peninsula - second expedition at the Peruvian coast line under Pizarro - Luther's "German Mass", pastors are allowed to have children - Spanish expedition at "Silver River" ("Rio de la Plata") - Parana and Paraguay River


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Chronology

28.1.
Spanish invasion against the Aztec Empire under Cortés - at the same time Magellan is sailing around the world


Cuba February 1519:
Cortés knows that secrecy of his invasion in Mexico will not last for a long time and that he would loose the confidence of his crew. Therefore he prefers to start during the night secretly with not completely equipped ships starting from Havana against the Aztecs. Spanish soldiers are promised good profits with exchange trade. There is never any mentioning of war (Huby, p.95).

One of the crew members is the soldier Bernal Diaz del Castillo who was also in the expedition of 1517/18 gaining experience and who has got a high reputation now. Cortés is often consulting him and is giving Diaz del Castillo often the role of a mediator without giving him any rank or decoration (Huby, p.109).

White racist occupation of the Aztec Empire
Map with the
                          Aztec Empire before the Spanish occupation   Map: Hernando Cortés came with his
                          horses. Starting point is Santiago de Cuba (on
                          Cuba),not Havana. Landing location is near
                          Veracruz
Map with the Aztec Empire before the Spanish occupation. And then Hernando Cortés came with his horses. Starting point is Santiago de Cuba (on Cuba), not Havana. Landing location is near Veracruz [1,2].

Map of
                              Mexico 1519-1521 with the route of Cortés
                              to Tenochtitlán with a relief of the
                              mountains vergrössern Map of Mexico 1519-1521 with the route of Cortés to Tenochtitlán with a relief of the mountains [3].

The altitude differences which have to be managed are enormous. It was surely a big performance managing over 4,000 meters of height on foot or on horse.

Diaz del
                          Castillo
Diaz del Castillo [4]

Hernando Cortés
Hernando Cortés [5]

The venture is starting on Feb 18, 1519
-- with 10 ships
-- with 608 men
-- with 10 canons
-- and with 16 horses (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51).

Details are the followings:
-- 32 crew members are crossbow riflemen
-- 13 crew members are with muskets (rifles) as musketeers
-- 10 are with the brass canons
-- 4 crew members are falcon carers
-- 308 to 500 crew members are soldiers
-- 100 crew members are sailors, pilots and captains

[not mentioned:
After all events the Spanish Crown can always say that this military Mexico campaign of Cortés was not authorized].

Dangerous transports of horses on the sea for "America"
Transports of horses on the sea was very dangerous. The horses were suffering the dark and humid rooms down in the ships and they suffered because of lack of movement. The death rate of horse transports to "America" could be 50%, above all in the "horse latitudes", regions on the oceans almost without winds where the dead horses had to be thrown over board in masses.

Measures were for example the installation of big slings so the horses could swing in the air. Records of 1800 yet are giving evidence that many precious horses were dying in the ships on stormy Atlantic. [Museum of the Horse, web19]



Before the construction of port quay facilities the horses were taken with a ship crane to the water thus they had to swim to the beach being lead by rudder boats. Quotation:

<When a ship anchored off the coast of the New World, the horses that had survived the voyage were brought out of their stalls in the ship’s hold. In order to prevent them from panicking, they were blindfolded and carefully raised from below deck by hoists attached to slings surrounding the horses’ bodies. Before wharves were build, the horses were lowered into the water and made to swim ashore, led by men in row boats.> [Museum of the horse, web19]

A horse is
                            in a big noose taken to the water, later it
                            will be taken to the quay of the port A horse is in a big noose taken to the water, later it will be taken to the quay of the port [6].



The advantage of the Spanish troops under Cortés: natives don't know horses considering the whites as "horse humans" - and prohibition of riding


The natives mean that horses and riders would be one unique animal, a horse human.

<Bernal Diaz del Castillo, who accompanied Cortes in his incursion into Mexico, wrote “The natives had never seen horses up to this time and thought the horse and rider were all one animal.”>

They are appreciating it enormously. Natives are rating even the horses for being gods. [Museum of the horse, web19]

The horses are one of the main factors for the Spanish victories against the natives. And the "Christian" colonialists prohibit riding for the natives. When escaped horses are captured by natives then they are not beginning to ride but they rather like to slaughter the horse. [Museum of the horse, web19]

In March 1519 appr. the self-appointed dictator Cortés lets land his fleet near San Juan de Ulua at the Mexican coast line in the Gulf of Mexico (Huby, p.95) in the territory of the today's Mexican state of Tabasco. In a battle with natives the expedition can take hostages of many enemies, with them also a young, Aztec princess being called "Marina" by Cortés. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

Cortés is installing an independent government which is acknowledging the Spanish Crown as an authority only. During a short training period Cortés gets the necessary information about the Aztec rulership. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

Translator and concubine of Cortés: Dona Marina/Malintzin

"In Tabasco Cortés is presented a woman servant Doña Marina who becomes his translator and concubine." [Cartwright, web12]

or there is also this version:

"During a battle with Indians there he took many captives, including a young Aztec princess to whom he gave the Spanish name Marina. She became his interpreter, adviser, and lover." [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

But there is also one more other version:

"Cortez is given a woman slave Malintzin who is speaking Nahuatl and Maya. With the help of a Spaniard who had lived with the Mayas the most important common language can be used as a political language now. Also Malintzin gets - as all defeated peoples - an own Spanish name. Doña Marina." (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51)

But Cortés is driving for more occupations for the king:

"By one account, Cortés forcefully asserted that he was there to find gold, not corn."
(Mariners' museum: Hernando Cortes: http://ageofex.marinersmuseum.org/index.php?type=explorer&id=34 (2014)

Cortés is looking for allies. He is searching the coast lines for more allies against the Aztecs. [Cartwright, web12]

At the beginning of 1519 Cortés lets construct a basis camp calling this village "Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz" ("Rich Village of the True Cross").
[Cartwright, web12]

respectively:

"Cortez continued up the coast. On April 21, 1519, he landed near the site of Vera Cruz." [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

The soldiers and sailors are rebelling now because they are experienced that the construction of a fort will be followed by a war. Many of them were already in the expedition of Yucatán and made their negative experience.

Cortés now is prevailing against all, he is not fearing the intrigues of Velasquez but he wants to occupy Mexico for Spain giving this gift to Charles V thus it will be not important to Charles V who was conquering Mexico.

Cortés is performing a military court in Veracruz and lets behead the leaders of the rebellion. The rest of the rebels gets 200 blows with sticks (Huby, p.95).


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28.2.
The destruction of the fleet for hindering any return - Cortez "liberating" the Totonacs - intimidation with canons an horses - "liberation" of Tlaxcala - the horse as a factor against the natives

Cortés is going on with brutal zeal of authority hindering his crew of flying: He is ordering to destroy the ships of his fleet, only some little boats should remain. And the crew is following: All ships are put on sand, all content is taken and then the ships are destroyed (Huby, p.95).

All but one ship are burnt so the men cannot go back again. The last ship is sent to Spain then for giving Charles V a message of the occupation. [Cartwright, web12]

In this way all are all in the same boat and Cortés is making "sweet" promises for the crew (Huby, p.95; report of Bernal Diaz del Castillo, soldier of the expedition).

In the neighboring town of Zempoala Cortés is getting to know the Totanac natives who are hating the Aztecs and who are fed up with paying tax to them. [Cartwright, web12]

First station of the Spanish military campaign is the town of Cempoal (Zempoala), the capital of the Totonac natives.
->> the Totonacs consider the whites as liberators as if they would be gods
->> the Totonacs see horses the first time in their life
->> Cortés considers the Totonacs as first allies against the Aztecs (Huby, p.95).

Totonac natives
Totonac natives in traditional dresses in
                          Veracruz
Totonac natives in traditional dresses in Veracruz [7]


Playing girls of Totonac natives in
                          Veracruz
Playing girls of Totonac natives [8]
Hernando Cortés in a knight's armor on
                            a horse. Next to it is a foal which seems
                            not so real...
Hernando Cortés in a knight's armor on a horse. Next to it is a foal which seems not so real... [9]

Tenochtitlán
: The Aztecs mean yet that there will be a god "Quetzalcoatl" coming back from the east. Rumors are spreading that Cortés would be this "Quetzalcoatl". Montezuma II, the Aztec ruler, is sending spies and diplomats now. They are coming back reporting that with this foreign god had landed many "iron soldiers" with "sticks spitting fire" [thus: rifles]. [Waesch: Cortés, web25]

God Quetzalcoatl of the Aztecs
Statue of the
                          Aztec god Quetzalcoatl in gold
Statue of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl in gold [10]



Quetzalcoatl as a feathered snake
Quetzalcoatl as a feathered snake [11]



Quetzalcoatl as a feathered snake
Quetzalcoatl as a feathered snake [12]

Cortés
is conquering rebellious locations making short work with them. Refractory locations are fought with fire arms and when this is not having effect then they are confronted with riders. As natives have never seen humans on horses before they are mostly giving up by this impressive impression.

Natives are also forced watching demonstrations of horses and fire arms. In this way the "strength" of the Spaniards is presented:
-- demonstrations of fire arms
-- demonstrations of a wild horse making noise whickering and pawing
-- and at the end comes the speech of Cortés stating that the whites would all be peace loving humans.

->> this intimidation and this tactic of promises is working with the Totonacs (Huby, p.96)
->> and Cortés gets 400 Totonac burden bearers

->> and now the Totonacs are advising Cortés to conquer Tlaxcala because the tribes there would also like to be liberated from the Aztec rulership (Huby, p.95).

Map of Mexico with the position of
                            Tlaxcala
Map of Mexico with the position of Tlaxcala [13]
"Christian historic building",
                          a church in Tlaxcala...
"Christian historic building", a church in Tlaxcala... [14]

The military campaign against Tenochtitlán is continuing in the middle of April 1519 with 200 Totonac burden bearers and with 40 fighting chiefs. [Cartwright, web12]

Cortés leaves a little group on the coast line. The big part of the expedition is marching to the inner of the country under leadership of Cortés:
"Leaving a small force on the coast, Cortez led the remainder into the interior." [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

Now there is a misunderstanding:

The army of the Spaniards and Totonacs is confronted with 6,000 Tlaxcala fighters. Additionally 40,000 Tlaxcala fighters are guarding the town of Tlaxcala. The Tlaxcalecs consider the whites as allies of Moctezuma. Pikes and sling stones are on one side against swords and rifles at the other side. The fury of the Tlaxcalecs is a big one because

-- Moctezuma interrupted the trade roads of the Tlaxcalecs
-- Moctezuma has damaged the Tlaxcalec economy in a serious way (Huby, p.96).

or:

"On his way to Tenochtitlán the expedition is confronted by a mass of Tlaxcalec warriors who are incited by Moctezuma Xocoyotzin and by the Aztecs. The Tlaxcalecs are attacking two times, but the they are conquered and finally they are joining Cortés as an ally. The next obstacle is Cholula."
[Cartwright, web12]

or:

"The warlike Tlaxcalans attacked--300 Indians to every Spaniard. After three battles, the Indians became allies of the Spaniards." [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

Cortés means:

<Next to God, We Owe Our Victory to Our Horses.>

And:

<Bernal Diaz del Castillo, who accompanied Cortes in his incursion into Mexico, wrote “The natives had never seen horses up to this time and thought the horse and rider were all one animal.”>

Cortes' army only had 16 horses but those provoked such an admiration at the natives so they were subduing to the occupants. [Museum of The Horse, web19]

After conceiving this new fact with the horses being adored by the natives the Spaniards were importing horses in masses now:

<In 1519, Coronado set out for North America with 150 horsemen. De Soto’s expedition, with 237 horses, followed, in 1539. By 1547, Antoni de Mendoza, the first governor of New Spain (Mexico), had 11 haciendas and more than 1,500 horses. The Spanish colonization depended on horses, and the Spaniards recognized the  tactical value of the animal.>

<The colonized Indians were forbidden to ride horses, unless they had the specific permission of their masters.>
[Museum of The Horse, web19; Parker, web21]

When other not conquered natives were capturing not watched and straying horses then the horse was killed and eaten and not used for learning riding.
[History of The Horse, web20]

The alliance against the Aztecs

Between the battles Cortés always tried to negotiate - successfully: The alliance against the Aztecs could be formed:

->> the government is promising a help of 100,000 Tlaxcalecs against the Aztecs

->> Cortés and his Spanish soldiers are spending 20 paradisal days in Tlaxcala with any food and alcohol

->> performing a ceremony the tribal chiefs of the Tlaxcalecs are giving daughters to Cortés and to Spanish officers

+ the volcano Popocatepetl is performing some outbreaks with clouds of ashes at the horizon thus this is another new performance for the Spaniards they have never seen before (Huby, p.96).

The position of the volcano
                          Popocatepetl in Mexico
The position of the volcano Popocatepetl in Mexico [15]
The volcano Popocatepetl
The volcano Popocatepetl [16]

And the Spaniards see that in Tlaxcala life can be just as good like in Spanish towns with markets where all is offered what is needed for life: clothes, shoes, golden ware, silver ware, gem stone jewelry, coal, wood, healing herbs and medicaments, also a hair dresser is there etc. (Huby, p.96).

Native woman from Tlaxcala
Native woman from Tlaxcala [17]
Market
                          from Tlaxcala today
Market from Tlaxcala today [17]

1519
Aztecs: administrative reform without result

The Spanish occupations (Spanish "conquista") are hindering the effect of the administrative reform of Moctezuma II. During the war against the Spaniards there is no result any more. [A.Baumann, web05]

Aztecs: Expectation of a returning god Quetzalcoatl - Cortés exploiting these structures
The Aztecs are paralyzed. According to their astronomic calculations the year 1519 should be the year when their formally expelled god Quetzalcoatl should come back.

->> the Aztecs are awaiting that the new white humans under Cortés would be the awaited gods
->> Cortés is recognizing immediately that he can exploit the repressive structures of the Aztec state
+ and Malintzin / Doña Marina, the lover and assessor of Cortés, is decisively contributing to the "success" against the Aztecs (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51).

The priorities of Cortés are:
-- horses are more worth than human beings
-- dogs are another tool against the natives. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

Hunting natives with shield, sword, horse and dog
Hernando Cortés hunting natives with
                            shields, swords, horses and dogs
Hernando Cortés hunting natives with shields, swords, horses and dogs [18]

This depiction is speaking a clear language. The woman author Dr. Nancy Fitch, professor of history at California State University in Fullerton means that the natives could have well distinguished horses and riders. [Fitch, web16]

Map of Mexico with the position of
                            Cholula
In June 1519 appr. the army of Cortés is conquering Cholula. He is welcomed friendly and is putting down in his records that this town would be made just "for the Spaniards" for living there (Huby, p.97).

[Where the natives should live he is not stating...]
Map of Mexico with the position of Cholula [19]


Aztec circles are planning to trick Cortés into an ambush. During a peace conference hold by Moctezuma in the court of the temple in Cholula he should be murdered.

Doña Marina / Malintzin is hearing about this plan informing Cortés. The conference is prepared. 1,000s of Cholulan people are united in the court. Now the Spaniards are coming together with the Tlaxcalacs surrounding the Cholulans in their temple court fighting them killing 1,000s of them (murdering?). The surviving Cholulans are joining Cortés. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

or there is also this version:

On the base of rumors of being attacked in an ambush Cortés let come 200 honorful representatives of Cholula to his place and lets murder them. Then he is realizing the promises he had made to the Spanish soldiers and lets plunder Cholula. Cholula's population of about 3,000 to 6,000 persons are killed. Cortés calls this in his reports "the castigation of Cholula".

These massacres are systematic methods of the Spanish doctrine to subdue peoples. By spreading fear and horror the populations should be brought to heel (Huby, p.97).

[And all other "Christian" Spaniards were collaborating not shooting this mass murderer Cortés...]

Depiction of the "Christian"
                            massacre against the natives in Cholula
Depiction of the "Christian" massacre against the natives in Cholula [20]

Depiction of the "Christian"
                            massacre of Hernando Cortés against the
                            natives in Cholula
Depiction of the "Christian" massacre of Hernando Cortés against the natives in Cholula [20]

Depiction in the Florentine Codex by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún; In: Dr. Nancy Fitch; woman professor of History; California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography [21]

Cortés is also deciding to destroy parts of the town of Cholula by fire for "demonstrating" his power [and not one "Christian" soldier killed this mass murder Cortés].
[what-means web13]

Impressions from Cholula


Cholula pyramid which was dedicated to
                            Quetzalcoatl
Cholula pyramid which was dedicated to Quetzalcoatl [22]

Stairs of the pyramid in Cholula
Stairs of the pyramid in Cholula [23]
"Christian
                            historic building", a church in
                            Cholula
"Christian historic building", a church in Cholula [24]

Cholula: Panorama
Cholula: Panorama [25]

Magellan's expedition: In June 1519 the expedition are reaching the bay of the today's Rio de Janeiro. There is much food, services of native girls, slave trade (exchange trade: one girl for one big knife or one axe etc.) but allegedly there is also cannibalism in the tribes when they are fighting each other so are the stories of a steerer Juan Carvajo who says he has seen this personally. All this has influence to Magellan's sailors. The natives live in long huts with up to 100 persons in a noisy room (Huby, p.82).

The expedition makes a stopover in the today's Rio de Janeiro in November 1519. [Waesch: Magellan, web28]

Mexico: Tenochtitlán: Moctezuma sees that he is in a heavy danger because Cortés with his allies with Totonacs and Tlaxcalacs is only one mountain range far from Tenochtitlán.

Messengers of Moctezuma are telling him
                          about a foreigner at the other side of the
                          lake Messengers of Moctezuma are telling him about a foreigner at the other side of the lake (Florentine codex) [26].


Different depictions of Tenochtitlan / Tenochtitlán
Tenochtitlán, depiction 01
Tenochtitlán, depiction 01 [27]

Tenochtitlán is an island in a lake. Here the lake is systematically depicted only saying that there is a lake "around the town". The form of this lake is just another one stretching itself from the north to the south.

Tenochtitlán, depiction 02 with an
                              abstract rectangle
Tenochtitlán, depiction 02 with an abstract rectangle [28]

Sometimes Tenochtitlán is depicted in a geometric unreal way like here with a rectangular form with channels around and within it and the channels around the town are symbolizing the lake.
Tenochtitlán, depiction 03
                          with a big lake with mountain ranges Tenochtitlán, depiction 03 with a big lake with mountain ranges [29]

This depiction of Tenochtitlán is almost very real, but the proportions are very unreal yet. The lake is just much too little, and the neighboring towns are hardly existing.
Map with Tenochtitlán on an island in a
                          big lake Map with Tenochtitlán on an island in a big lake [30]

The real proportions can be seen here.
Here is
                          a three dimensional view of the island of
                          Tenochtitlán Here is a three dimensional view of the island of Tenochtitlán [31]
This map is giving an idea of the
                              dam's system vergrössern This map is giving an idea of the dam's system. As one can see there are several locations built on islands in this lake [32].

1. Tenochtitlán - 2. Tepeyac - 3. Tlacopan - 4. Azcapotzalco - 5. Tenayuca - 6. Cuicuilco - 7. Coyoacan - 8. Itzapalapan - 9. Culhuacan - 10. Mexicaltzingo - 11. Xochimilco - 12. Chalco - 13. Coatepec - 14. Coatlichan - 15. Huexotlan - 16. Texcoco - 17. Teotihuacán - 18. Xaltocán - 19. Zompango - 20. Chapultepec

A. Lake Zumpango - B. Lake Xaltocan - C. Lake Texcoco - D. Lake Xochimilco - E. Lake Chalco
Relief map of the region of
                          Tenochtitlán Relief map of the region of Tenochtitlán [33]

And this region is not at all flat.

Also here one can see the dam system around Tenochtitlán / today's Mexico City. The aqueduct is missing. But one can see that also for other towns in the lake were existing dams, not only for Tenochtitlán.
Temple district and Central Square of Tenochtitlan (model)
Tenochtitlan : temple district, model[34]
Tenochtitlan : temple district, model[35]

Now see how the escalation is going on by the criminal "Christians":

Moctezuma wants to solve the situation by his kind of acting sending messengers to Cortés with gifts with the message he should receive the gifts and go home. So:

->> the nearer the troops of Cortés come the more presents are given by Moctezuma's messengers.

Depiction how the Aztec natives are
                          bringing gifts to Cortés Depiction how the Aztec natives are bringing gifts to Cortés [36].

The translator is missing in this picture.

->> but these gifts are provoking a very primitive reaction with the Spaniards: The more gifts they get by the messengers of Moctezuma the more greedy they become and they are not rewarding this generosity (Huby, p.97):

(German text:
"Als sie das Gold in ihren Händen hatten, brach Lachen aus den Gesichtern der Spanier hervor, ihre Augen funkelten vor Vergnügen, sie waren entzückt. Wie Affen griffen sie nach dem Gold und befingerten es, sie waren hingerissen vor Freude, auch ihre Herzen waren angesteckt von den Strahlen des Goldes. Nur nach Gold hungerten und dürsteten sie, es ist wahr! Sie schwollen an vor Gier und Verlangen nach Gold, gefrässig wurden sie in ihrem Hunger nach Gold, sie wühlten wie hungrige Schweine nach Gold."


Translation:
"When they had the gold in their hands, the Spaniards were laughing without limits, their eyes were shining by joy, they were delighted. Like monkeys they were taking the gold touching it, they were moved back and forth by their joy, also their hearts were infected by the rays of the gold. They were just hungry and thirsty for gold, nothing else, this is true! They were swelling by their greed for gold, they converted into carnivores with their hunger for gold, they were rummaging for gold like hungry pigs."
(from: Reinhard, vol.II, p.48; also in: M.León-Portilla: Return of the Gods. Records of the Aztecs about the doom of their empire (original in German: Rückkehr der Götter. Die Aufzeichnungen der Azteken über den Untergang ihres Reiches). Munich, 1965, p.46, according to Sahagún XII, 12)





The Aztecs are going on to think that Hernán Cortés would be the former god Quetzalcoatl. The Aztecs in Tenochtitlán are awaiting Cortés as believing and humble persons. And as it would be not coincidence enough Cortés is just looking similar to the statue of Quetzalcoatl (Huby, p.95).


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28.3.
Supplement: Moctezuma and Aztecs


Moctezuma / Montezuma / Mutezuma in normal life in Mexico
Chocolate
                          sweeties and chocolate "Moctezuma" Chocolate sweeties and chocolate "Moctezuma" [37]

In Mexico Moctezuma is also a name for daily articles: for example for chocolate sweeties and chocolate. Moctezuma as a spirit against the Spanish "Christian" imperialists greedy for gold is omnipresent in Mexico.
Moctezuma are also called a chain of
                            restaurants and of shopping centers And Moctezuma are also called a chain of restaurants and of shopping centers [38].
And of course
                              there is also a Moctezuma beer... And of course there is also a Moctezuma beer... [39]

Traditional style of the Aztecs today
Aztec
                            mandala work
Aztec mandala work
Aztec star
Aztec star
Aztecs,
                            son+moon symbol
Aztecs, son+moon symbol
There are wonderful items of Aztec stitcheries [40].
Aztec natives Two Aztec girls are here
                          confronted by the "Christian"
                          mission
Aztec flute with Aztec cross as a
                          pendant
Aztec natives [41]
Two Aztec girls are here confronted by the "Christian" mission and don't show a joyful face - and at the same time the church claims Aztec had to be "saved"... [42]
Aztec flute with Aztec cross as a pendant [43]

Magic feathers of the Quetzal birds
In the Aztec and in other native societies a feather headdress of parrot tail feathers (of Quetzal birds) are rated as the highest, much more than gold. Here one can see the feather headdress of Montezuma which is holy for the Anahuak Aztecs.




Feather headdress of Montezuma
Feather headdress of Montezuma [44]



Quetzal bird with long green tail
                            feathers

Quetzal bird with long green tail feathers [45]
Picture (part) how on a
                          market the Aztecs are using the precious
                          feathers for exchanging jewelries
Quetzal birds as
                          earrings
Quetzal birds as earrings [47]
Picture (part) how on a market the Aztecs are using the precious feathers for exchanging jewelries [46]

In Mexico
                          there are dances with drums and feathers, here
                          in Mexico City
In Mexico there are dances with drums and feathers, here in Mexico City [48]


Competitions in dancing with a feather headdress

dancing with a feather headdress

dancing with a feather headdress
Dancer with a feather
                          headdress
[49]



Inhalt     nach oben

Chronology (continuation)

1519-1521

29.
Plundering the Aztec treasury and "distribution" of the gold: 80% for Cortés - quarrel about a cross on the temple's pyramid in Tenochtitlán - Moctezuma lets detain his nephew

The simple version tells the following:

-- Spanish invaders destroyed and robbed with their invasion the Aztec Empire (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.223)

-- from 1519 to 1521 Tenochtitlán is conquered by the Spaniards (H. Cortés) and destroyed. On the ruins the new town of Mexico is built (DTV lexicon, vol.18, p.136).

-- Cortés is conquering the Aztec Empire 1519-1521 and is calling it "Viceroyalty of New Spain", which is especially precious because of it's treasury of silver (DTV lexicon, vol.12, p.82).

So this is the simple DTV production of history data with more gaps than data with the European view, but it is not that simple. It's really worth working out the details of the events and judging them:

At the beginning of November 1519 the army of Cortés from Spain - with Totonacs, Tlaxcalecs, and Cholulacs inclusive - is coming over the last mountain pass before Tenochtitlán.
They see the town of Tenochtitlán in the lake. In the town before - Iztapalapa - Cortés is received by 100 high officials. This is the proof that the Aztecs consider the whites as gods yet (Huby, p.97).

During those times the capital of Tenochtitlán has got 300,000 inhabitants: "Before the conquest alone the capital Tenochtitlán had 300,000 inhabitants."
(original in German: "Allein die Hauptstadt Tenochtitlán hatte vor der Eroberung rund 300.000 Einwohner.") [Jestrabek, web03]

Bernal Diaz del Castillo is telling the story like a novel:

"We ere really astonished about this magic empire which seemed so unreal like the palace in the knight's book of Amadis." (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49)
(in German: "Wir waren bass erstaunt über das Zauberreich, das fast so unwirklich schien wie die Paläste in dem Ritterbuch des Amadis". (Reinhard II., S.49).

Tenochtitlán: map allegedly by Dürer
Tenochtitlán,
                            engraving map allegedly by Albrecht Dürer
vergrössernTenochtitlán, engraving map allegedly by Albrecht Dürer

Even with this world wide spread engraving the lake is depicted in absolutely faked dimensions.

in: Hernando Cortés: Praeclara Ferdinandi Cortesii de nova maris oceani Hyspania narratio... Nuremberg: F. Peypus, 1524 [50].


<This map, attributed to Albrecht Dürer, shows the city before its destruction, with the principal Aztec temples in the main square, causeways connecting the city to the mainland, and an aqueduct supplying fresh water. Much of the information on this map must have come from Aztec sources - as did a great deal of the intelligence Cortés relied upon in his conquest. This map circulated in numerous histories of the New World.> [Penn Library, web14b]

On Nov 8, 1519, Cortés is marching in Tenochtitlán with a triumphal march-in. Diaz is reporting:

(original German:
"Die Strasse, auf der wir marschierten, war nach meiner Erinnerung acht Schritt breit und führte kerzengerade bis in die Mitte von Mexiko. Aber diese grosse Strasse reichte nicht aus, um die Menschenmenge aufzunehmen, die aus der Stadt kam und die in die Stadt zog, um uns zu sehen und zu begleiten. Auf allen Türmen und Tempeln standen Zuschauer, der ganze See war dicht bedeckt mit überfüllten Fahrzeugen [...]" (Huby, S.97).


Translation:
"According to my remembrance the road where we were marching was 8 feet broad and was leading straight ahead into the middle of Mexico. But this big road was not enough for the crowd which came from the city and which was going to the town for seeing and accompanying us. On all towers and temples there were people watching, the whole lake was full with vehicles [...]." (Huby, p.97)

Cortés is received by Moctezuma with respect being considered the returning god Quetzalcoatl:

(Text in German:
<O unser Herr! Mit Mühsal, mit Ermüdung hast du es erlangt, dass du hier im Lande angekommen bist, dass du an deine Stadt Mexiko herangekommen bist, dass du auf deiner Matte, deinem Stuhl zu sitzen gekommen bist, den ich nur eine kleine Weile für dich gehütet habe [...]

Ich war bekümmert eine ganze Reihe von Tagen, wie ich hinschaute nach dem unbekannten Land, aus dem du gekommen bist, aus den Wolken heraus. Denn das haben uns die Häuptlinge überliefert, dass du kommen wirst, deine Stadt aufzusuchen [...]

Und jetzt ist es wahr geworden. Du bist zurückgekehrt. Sei nun wohl angekommen. Ruhe dich aus! Besuche deinen Palast!> (Huby, S.97)


Translation:
<O our Lord! You suffered hardship and you are tired coming here to this land reaching the town of Mexico and now you are sitting on the mat and on the chair which I was guarding for you just for a wile [...]

I was concerned during many days looking to the unknown land from where you came, coming out from the clouds. Because this was told us by the chiefs that you will come to see your town [...]

And now it has become true. You have come back. You have arrived well. Just relax! Visit your palace!> (Huby, p.97)

Now see the depictions how they are right or a fake:

Receiving Hernando Cortés by Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, Nov 8, 1519
Right and faked depictions
Unreal welcoming of Cortés at
                          Moctezuma without translator Unreal welcoming of Cortés at Moctezuma without translator [51]

Depiction of the welcoming between Cortés (left) and Moctezuma (right). Here the woman translator is missing.
Depiction of messengers of Moctezuma
                          bringing gifts to Cortés in the countryside
                          before Tenochtitlán Depiction of messengers of Moctezuma bringing gifts to Cortés in the countryside before Tenochtitlán [52].

This can be Cortés (left) but not Moctezuma (right), and the translator is missing, and the scenery in the countryside was with messengers giving gifts. But Moctezuma was not coming to the countryside...


Depiction of
                            the welcoming scenery between Cortés (right)
                            and Moctezuma (left), depiction of the 18th
                            century
Depiction of the welcoming scenery between Cortés (right) and Moctezuma (left), depiction of the 18th century [53]

But also this seems to be on the countryside...
The
                          woman translator Malinche / Doña Marina is
                          translating between Moctezuma (right) and
                          Cortez (left) in the town
The woman translator Malinche / Doña Marina is translating between Moctezuma (right) and Cortez (left) in the town [54]

from: Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún

According to Dr. Nancy Fitch the woman translator Malinche / Doña Marina is favoring the Spanish side very much concerning the cultural differences between the Spaniards and the Aztecs in Tenochtitlán. [Fitch, web17]

Moctezuma is greeting Cortés with a high rated Aztec chocolate beverage "xocolatl" which is tasting a little bit bitterly, made of cacao beans "cacahuatl", a paste with spices, vanilla and some honey. [Chocolate's History, web23a]


Moctezuma's throne
vergrössern Moctezuma's throne [55]
Without his lover Malinche
                            / Doña Marina - the translator - nothing is
                            working between the Aztecs and Cortés.


Without his lover Malinche / Doña Marina - the translator - nothing is working between the Aztecs and Cortés.

Depiction of scenery in the Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún [56]

Moctezuma's brother is warning Moctezuma II now but in vain for trusting Cortés too much:

<The gods should hope that you will not accept the person in your house who is throwing you out of it then [...].> (Huby, p.97)
(German text:
<Möge es unseren Göttern gefallen, dass ihr nicht in euer Haus denjenigen hineinbringt, der euch aus ihm hinauswirft [...].> (Huby, S.97)

But as opposed to the Aztecs the Spaniards have a remarkably "stinky and gluey" kind of living. H. Jestrabek tells us:

(original German:
<Die Azteken hatten ein blühendes Reich aufgebaut. Kulturell hatten die Azteken den Eroberern einiges voraus. So in puncto Körperpflege: Cortés berichtete erstaunt dass die Indianer jeden Tag badeten. Die Azteken bezeichneten die Eroberer - nicht ohne Grund - als "stinkende und klebende Menschen".>



Translation:
<The Aztecs had a booming Empire. Culturally the Aztecs were advanced to the conquerers. For example concerning hygiene: Cortés was reporting in an astonished way that the natives were taking a bath every day. The Aztecs called the conquerers - not without reason - as "stinky and gluey men".> [Jestrabek, web03]

Cortés lets celebrate Tenochtitlán during one week. The Spanish soldiers are lodged in the former palace of Moctezuma's father. But they are not waiting so long and then they begin with their search for the royal treasure of the Aztec Empire. Under the pretext to look for an appropriate location for a chapel they get the access to the most holy rooms of the former palace and behind a freshly plastered door they find Moctezuma's royal treasure.

Now Cortés is joined for an estimation of the treasure, but it seems not possible to him to calculate the value of such a plenty of objects and gold. Cortés lets shut and block the door again and is not touching anything first (Huby, p.97).

At Nov 10, 1519, Spanish soldiers are trying to perform the first trials for a purge and for installing churches. The Spanish soldiers want to eliminate the Aztec gods from the temples immediately and they want to install churches immediately. Moctezuma is prohibiting this and first the Spanish soldiers are obeying.

The Spaniards don't want to understand the Aztec religion thanks to whom they were welcomed peacefully in Tenochtitlán. They are just considering the ritual human sacrifices and the heart amputations in favor of the sun. Cortés wants to stop these sacrifice rituals with harsh measures (Huby, p.98).

The Spaniards are really shocked about the Aztec sacrifice rites and they try to "introduce" the "Christian" religion. But then the Aztec priests are rebelling and they are advising Moctezuma to murder Cortés.
[Cartwright, web12]

Aztecs: heart processions with human sacrifices for the sun: sun needs heart blood
Such a crazy belief seems very brute, but the wars of "Christianity" for just a "cross" were not less cruel - just the injured and the dead victims of the battles are never counted!


Aztec heart procession with heart
                                sacrifices for the sun

Aztec heart procession with heart
                              sacrifices for the sun
Aztec heart procession with heart
                                sacrifices for the sun
[57]
[58]
[59]

[European war rite killing masses by ideological reasons has not been acknowledged by the "Christian" states as "bloody rite" until today...]

Soon after the installation of Cortés' headquarter in Tenochtitlán on Nov 10, 1519, approximately Mr. Cortés gets the news that Aztec groups had plundered Veracruz. Now Mr. Cortés is acting against Montezuma capturing him at Nov 14, 1519 forcing him to stop the attack. Then he lets behead the attackers.

See the text of the Pirate King's Library:

<Soon after Cortez established headquarters in the capital he learned the Aztecs had plundered Vera Cruz. Swiftly he seized Montezuma and forced him to surrender the attackers. Then he had them executed.>
[Ossian: Cortez, web24; also in: Cartwright, web12]

Moctezuma II is brought to the "Spanish District", the former palace of Moctezuma's father (Huby, p.98), in the palace of Axayacatl, a former Aztec ruler where also Cortés' quarter is lodged. [Cartwright, web12]

At the same time Moctezuma is aware how the mood of the "Teules" / white gods is becoming always more and more arrogant (Huby, p.97) and he means that this has to do something with gold because the Spaniards are always speaking about gold what is known in the meantime (Huby, p.98).

Moctezuma is instructed by his
                            messengers about the Spaniards Moctezuma is instructed by his messengers about the Spaniards [60]

Depiction in the Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún.

In the middle of November 1519 about Moctezuma is giving the royal treasure away to the Spaniards meaning that this would provoke getting rid off the Spaniards, and he is even giving an obedient message to Charles V:

"This is sending you your loyal vassal Moctezuma". (German text: "Das sendet euch euer treuer Vasall Moctezuma" (Huby, S.98).

Depiction of scenery: Moctezuma is
                            presenting Cortés all objects of his
                            treasury. Next to Cortés is Malinche, the
                            translator Depiction of scenery: Moctezuma is presenting Cortés all objects of his treasury. Next to Cortés is Malinche, the translator [61].

Cortés is forcing Moctezuma to swear his loyalty to the Spanish crown and to prepare a ransom in gold and jewelry. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

This royal treasury Cortés is well accepting. The soldiers and Cortés need three days for a close look at it. Then the Spaniards are doing the most incredible thing: They are leaving the jewelry and arts objects but they are melting all golden objects forming gold bars of it for the Spanish emperor (Huby, p.98).

Cortés and
                              his translator Malinche counting the gold
                              of Montezuma Cortés and his translator Malinche counting the gold of Montezuma [62]

Depiction of scenery of the Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún

But then the treasury has to be distributed and this is provoking a quarrel:

-- 20% should get the emperor - this is not put into question
-- now Cortés also wants 20% - but the soldiers are not agreeing because Cortés is not an emperor
-- and Cortés wants even 20% more for "allowable expenses" which should fall to Cortés again
-- and Cortés wants even 20% more for certain payments of bonus
-- and only the last 20% should be parted under the 450 soldiers who are accompanying him.

->> now the furious soldiers are rejecting or are spending their little pray on drinks

->> Cortés is acting against this rebellion with an extraordinary council making new promises of all kind, and where he is not convincing the soldiers he is paying a little bit

->> and in this way the "Spanish unity" is saved again (Huby, p.98).

Tenochtitlán: first "trials for Christianization" at the end of 1519 appr.: The Spaniards are undertaking first "trials for Christianization" with the Aztec priesthood. Cortés lets erect a big cross on the biggest temple pyramid holding saying a Mass there - without the permission of Moctezuma II - and with this action Cortés is desecrating the temple of the Aztecs for the priesthood.

The Aztec clergy is rebelling and only now they recognize that the whites are foreigners. The Aztec clergy is now stating that the Aztec gods would be furious against the whites. Above all the nephew of Moctezuma, Cacama, duke of Tetzcuco, is trying to form a conspiracy with all Aztec dukes against Cortés and against these whites.

->> Cortés threatens Cacama with "the worst" in the name of Charles V

->> Cacama is going on with his rebellion that he would not know any emperor and it would be better never having known this Cortés too

->> Moctezuma is ordering the detention of Cacama and of other three nephews

->> Cortés lets detain Cacama and other three noble nephews of Moctezuma jailing them in chains, and in this way the Aztec nobles are tricked (Huby, p.98).

For these events there are very different depictions which are just all not showing the real faces of Moctezuma or Cacama, and there are depictions of theater performances up to comics and naive depictions etc.


Inhalt     nach oben

1520

30.
Holocaust on Hispañola - the cross on the temple pyramid in Tenochtitlán is unacceptable - Aztec war declaration against the Spaniards - Magellan is blocked in Patagonia by snow - Cortés promising his departure - natives constructing four new ships for the Spaniards - Spanish Crown wants to detain Cortés occupying Veracruz - Cortés raiding Veracruz convincing the royal soldiers for a second campaign against the Aztecs

"Hispañola": On the island were 1 million natives (in 1492), there are 16,000 left yet. Other estimations say there were 8 million first and 55,000 are living yet (Reinhard, vol.II, p.62).

In the whole Caribbean and partly also in Mexico the number of natives is reduced by 90%, on "certain islands" the natives are completely eliminated and exterminated (Reinhard, vol.II, p.63).

Tenochtitlán: After a meeting between Moctezuma and the rebellious priests Moctezuma is offering his war declaration to Cortés in the beginning of 1520 appr.:

"Our gods gave our priests and to me and to all leaders the answer and the order that we have to make war against you killing you or chasing you out to the sea." (Huby, p.98)
(German text:
"Unsere Götter haben unseren Priestern und mir und allen Anführern Antwort und Befehl gegeben, dass wir gegen euch Krieg führen, euch töten oder euch auf das Meer hinausjagen." (Huby, S.98)

Moctezuma is ultimatively claiming for the withdrawal or the complete army of Cortés would die (Huby, p.98).

Magellan expedition: At the same time in February 1520 Magellan's ships are searching the eastern coast line of South "America". The expedition is controlling 2,000 nautical miles [3,704 km] and on the position of 35º latitude a big bay is found. Now the hope is rising but this is only the big bay of the "Silver River" ("Rio de la Plata"). The Spanish occupation is rebelling, but Magellan can get his way one more time (Huby, p.82). [Waesch: Magellan, web28]

Since March and April 1520 Magellan's expedition is suffering an onset of winter at the coast line and the ships have to stay the winter in "Patagonia" with tossing storms and absolute monotony.

At the end of March the expedition is reaching the bay which is called "Saint Julian" ("San Julian"). There is no human being at this coast and the expedition is staying there during two months. But there are dwellers which are reported in the travel reports to be big humans with giant feet thus the literature is combining the Spanish word for foot (pata) with the ending for big things (-gon): "Patagon", plural "Patagones", being called "Big Footers", and according to these records of Magellan the country gets later the name "Patagonia" (Huby, p.83).

In March 1520 illnesses and quarrels are forcing Magellan again to go ashore for a not so short stopover of 6 months. [Waesch: Magellan, web28]

The crew is initiating with rebellions again. Magellan is called a "limping devil". Magellan can hinder shipping maneuvers of the rebels. "In the name of the Crown" the leader of the rebellion, the Spanish captain Mendoza, is beheaded by the captain's servant, Quesada (Huby, p.83).

On an expedition to a bay with the most flexible ship "Santiago" by Magellan's best friend Serrao this ship comes into a storm. The boat is smashed at the coast line. The crew members are saving themselves. Two messengers are reaching the mother ship after a walk of eleven days through snow and ice. And the salvation of the crew is successful (Huby, p.84).

Tenochtitlán: In April 1520 appr. Cortés is promising Moctezuma that he will leave soon. But first new ships have to be built. Moctezuma is content and is extending the deadline. The natives are helping the whites and within short time four new ships are built (Huby, p.98).

Durán
                            Codex 1521: natives are building new ships
                            for Cortés...
Durán Codex 1521: natives are building new ships for Cortés... [63]



Cortés is pretending a "friendship" now and wants to invite Moctezuma for a trial trip with the boats in May 1520. There are no preparations made for parting yet. Then Cortés is getting the message that 800 Spanish soldiers have landed in Veracruz on the order of Diego de Velásquez and under the leadership of Panfilo de Narvaez in the name of the Spanish Emperor. They are ordered to detain Cortés and his soldiers (Huby, p.98).

Diego de Velásquez de Cuellar, governor
                            of Cuba Panfilo de
                              Narvaez, Spanish colonialist in Mexico
Diego de Velásquez de Cuellar, governor of Cuba [64] [and under him many natives have to die in quarries for beautiful stony churches and houses of the "Christs"...]
Panfilo de Narvaez, Spanish colonialist in Mexico [65]

Velásquez
sent 1,400 soldiers for detaining Cortés bringing him back to Cuba, Pirate King's Library means:

Text:

<Meanwhile Velasquez had sent 1,400 soldiers to arrest Cortez and bring him back to Cuba.> [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

And now Cortés is making more maneuvers:
->> Cortés is leaving about 200 soldiers in Tenochtitlán under the leadership of Pedro de Alvarado
->> and with the remnant 250 Spanish soldiers he wants to conquer the Spanish army under Panfilo de Narvaez (Huby, p.98).

Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish colonialist
                    racist in Mexico
Pedro de Alvarado, Spanish colonialist racist in Mexico [66]

Veracruz: In one night Cortés with his troops is surprising the forces of Panfilo de Narvaez. Cortés is even detaining Narvaez, he is bribing him with gold and then he is leaving him to chose if he wants to join the campaign against the Aztecs in Tenochtitlán where more gold could be found, and then Narvaez with his men is joining Cortés. [Cartwright, web12]

or there is also this version:

<Cortés is holding one more "sweat speech" for the soldiers bribing the troops of Velásquez with intrigues and promises and in this way so they change the side to him.> (Huby, p.99)
(original in German: "Cortez hält vor den Soldaten eine weitere "honigsüsse Rede" und zieht so die Truppe von Velásquez mittels Intrigen und Versprechungen auf seine Seite." (Huby, S.99)

With this Cortés has isolated the distrustful Velásquez and he provoked in all soldiers the hope for occupied territories (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51).

[-- the Spanish Crown is too coward to capture this wild "Christian" Cortés
-- and using an extortion Cortés is winning more white warriors against Moctezuma in Tenochtitlán
-- and the native population is absolutely betrayed by Cortés because they did not even give all the royal treasury for Cortés but they even have built ships for him].

Inhalt     nach oben

May-June 1520 appr.

31.
Spanish occupants destroying the temple under leadership of Alvarado - rebellion of the population, or: preventive detention of Moctezuma, or: arbitrary massacre - rebellion - second invasion of Cortés with additional white troops - Moctezuma is murdered by the natives as a puppet of the white - siege of the "Spanish District" - the Aztec leader is murdered - Spanish withdrawal "noche triste" ["sad night"]

Tenochtitlán: During a festivity of the Aztecs where they are singing and dancing before the temples Pedro de Alvarado lets occupy the temple doors and the dancing and singing natives are killed. Additionally the soldiers are "rewarded" and are permitted to plunder the temple and the neighboring houses.

->> now the enmity of the Aztecs is outbreaking openly because the Spaniards are absolutely unpredictable invaders because Cortés is not at all present

->> and the native population is considering Moctezuma only a puppet of the whites yet (Huby, p.99).

Or there is also here another version. Look how is the criminal "Christian" work in Mexico:

The Aztecs get a permission from the Spanish side under Pedro de Alvarado for celebrating the festivity of Huitzilopochtli.

Huitzilopochtli, Aztec sun god and war god
Huitzilopochtli, Aztec sun god and war
                            god Huitzilopochtli, Aztec sun god and
                              war god
[67]
[68]

Now the Spaniards are getting afraid that the Aztecs could loose their mind and the mood could change becoming a hostile one. [Cartwright, web12]

When the Aztecs were sacrificing for the sun god Huitzilopochtli then the Spaniards took the resolution to interfere. [A.Baumann, web11a]

Then the Spaniards take the resolution to interfere. Moctezuma is detained in chains, many Aztecs are killed. Then the Spanish soldiers are taking their flight to the Spanish District, the palace of Axayacatl. [Cartwright, web12]

or:
The leader of the Spanish garrison is massacring 600 Mexican nobles: <The leader of the garrison there had slaughtered 600 Mexican nobles.>
[Ossian: Cortez, web24]

Cortés is yet under way to Tenochtitlán.

On June 23, 1520, Cortés and his army are reaching Tenochtitlán and they see the town blocked in an upheaval: The dams are broken. Cortés lets build movable bridges for overcoming the gaps in the dams. Then his army has to attack two times reaching the town. [Cartwright, web12]

When Cortés and his troops are reaching the town of Tenochtitlán, then they are attacked by 1,000s of Aztec soldiers:
<As Cortez and his men reached the heart of the city, they were attacked by thousands of Aztec warriors.> [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

On June 30, 1520, Cortés troops are reaching the "Spanish Quarter". Bartolomé de las Casas is reporting Cortés about the events of the upheaval. Cortés is ordering Moctezuma to order calm to the Aztecs.

Moctezuma is also doing this. But now the mood of the population is changing against him detecting that he is only a puppet (Huby, p.99) of the brutal and stinking Spaniards. The mob is murdering Moctezuma by stoning him and he is dying of his injuries later (King's Library). The upheaval and the siege are going on (Huby, p.99). The Aztecs are sieging the "Spanish District" now, they are blocking food deliveries and they are interrupting the water supply to the former palace of Moctezuma II's father.

The Spaniards are in a lethal danger, but Cortés and three more are achieving to murder the leader of the Aztecs robbing his banner. This is shocking the Aztecs as this would be a "wonder" and then the Aztecs are giving up the siege.

Text:

<Cortez' army was surrounded and apparently doomed, but he and three others managed to get to the chieftain of the Aztecs and killed him, seizing his banner. Dismayed by this apparent "miracle," the Aztecs withdrew.> [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

After being stoned Montezuma is dying three days later. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

or there is this version:
The conquerer Cortés is achieving to detain Montezuma killing him by stabbing. [Jestrabek, web03]

The resistance of the Aztecs is continued under Koatlahuak and later under Cuauthemoc. [Jestrabek, web03]

Letters to Cortés to Charles V about the occupation of Mexico

After having convinced the troops in Veracruz continuing the military campaign Cortés is justifying his action in a personal letter of Charles V and in this way he is winning more influence than the India politician Mr. Fonseca who is a relative of Velásquez (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51). All in all Cortés is sending five detailed reports about his occupation of Mexico to the Spanish king Charles V. [Penn Library, web14a]

"Sad night" ("noche triste")

On June 30 / July 1, 1520 the Spaniards are retreating from Tenochtitlán in the "sad night". [A. Baumann, web07]

or:
Less than 500 of the remaining Spanish soldiers are trying their flight to the allies of the Tlaxcalacs.
<With fewer than 500 of his men left alive, Cortez in July 1520 made his way back to his Tlaxcalan allies.> [Ossian: Cortez, web24]

or:

Cortés and his soldiers want secretly leave Tenochtitlán being protected by the night. Only 20% of Moctezuma's treasury, just the part for the emperor, can be loaded. From the rest anyone can serve himself as much he wants. But the Spanish soldiers don't want any ballast or burden. In this way most of the treasure is left in the palace.

Cortés' army with the allies of Totonacs, Tlaxcalecs and Cholulacs is trying during fog and rain it's flight over the dam to Tacuba.

->> now the emergency bridges are jamming in the soft soil, and the flight is blocked at the open ditches

->> during every flash of the thunderstorm there is an attack of the Aztecs by flashes coming from the canoes, and from the upper floors sling stones are hammering to the Spaniards

->> the refugees are blocked from both sides now and from behind the soldiers are pushing the first ones into the ditches and channels

->> the killed soldiers and horses are filling up the channels and the rest is running over it.

"Noche Triste" / "night
                            of sorrows": The Spaniards are taking
                            their flight from Tenochtitlán "Noche Triste" / "night of sorrows": The Spaniards are taking their flight from Tenochtitlán [69]

Depiction of the scene in Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún.

The balance is:
-- over 800 dead Spanish soldiers
-- over 4,000 dead soldiers of the Tlaxcala natives
-- the whole Spanish artillery is eliminated
-- about 70 horses are killed (Huby, p.99)

or:
Finally the Aztecs are expelling the Spaniards in June 1520. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

or:

On June 30 Cortés is arriving at the palace of Axayacatl. The Spaniards found a huge amount of gold in a hideout, the royal treasure of Axayacatl. The Spaniards are taking the gold (which is a heavy burden) and they want to fly with it during the darkness of the night passing a secret exit to the north to Tlatelolco on the dam to Tlacopan.

The Aztecs are attacking the flying Spaniards on the dam on it's whole length up to Tlacopan. From 1,500 Spaniards and their allies only 300 reach Tlacopan. 100s are disappearing or are killed. Almost all who reach Tlacopan are injured, also Cortés who has a serious wound on his head. This night is known as "Noche Triste" ["night of sorrows"]. [Cartwright, web12]

Bernal Diaz del Castillo about the death under the sign of the king and the money:

"They (the Spaniards) were dying a dreadful death for serving God and His Majesty [!] bringing light [!] to them who were in the darkness, and also getting wealth who humans are looking for normally." (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49)
(original in German:
"Sie (die Spanier) starben jenen grausamsten Tod, um Gott und Seiner Majestät zu dienen [!] und denen Licht [!] zu bringen, die in der Finsternis waren, und auch, um Reichtümer zu erlangen, die wir Menschen alle gemeinhin zu suchen pflegen." (Reinhard II., S.49)

[Without protest the Spanish historians are permitting the human sacrifices for the mission and they are even justifying all theft and robbery. This logic would also permit the theft and robbery of the Vatican because this action is just "human" how those nobles are just writing...]


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August-end of 1520

32.
Spanish victory on the open field against Aztec warriors - new war preparations under Cortés against the Aztecs with sailboats - the Aztecs dumping the golden treasure in the lake - smallpocks in Tenochtitlán - Luther writing about policy, against dogmas of the papal church describing new ethic rules - Luther burning the papal bull getting more and more followers - Magellan loosing his way in the cliffs at the southern tip of South "America" - provision ship flying - the Pacific

Newly formed the Spaniards are leaving Tlacopan reaching Tlaxcala. The Aztecs are pursuing them and in the plain near Otumba some Spaniards are detained. The Spaniards - whereas a minority - are returning and are defeating the Aztecs in the field. [Cartwright, web12]

Then the withdrawal to Veracruz is performed.

Mexico: From about September to October 1520 Cortés is undertaking new preparations for another military campaign against the Aztecs in Tenochtitlán, with
-- many native allies auxiliaries
-- with 900 Spanish soldiers
-- with 86 horses
-- with 3 heavy cannons
-- with 15 light cannons
-- with 13 little sailboats for attacking Tenochtitlán also on the lake (Huby, p.99), so called brigantines, sailboats with two posts for blocking Tenochtitlán from Texcoco blocking Lake Texcoco. [Cartwright, web12]

Sailboat with two posts
                              "brigantine", invention by
                              Hernando Cortés Sailboat with two posts "brigantine", invention by Hernando Cortés [70]

According to Dr. Nancy Fitch the brigantine sailboat is a genius invention of Cortés: It is a rudder boat, a sailboat, and in a long form of a tub, with canopy protecting the crew and warriors from attacks by arrows. Cortés lets build 13 such brigantines. They permit the Spaniards to control the whole lake during the siege of Tenochtitlán.  [Fitch, web16]

At the same time there is a propaganda in Tenochtitlán against the Spaniards for defending Tenochtitlán. The Aztecs are electing the son-in-law of Moctezuma II, Cuauthémoc, as their successor. He wants to make a huge propaganda in all native tribes and populations driving to a "general fight against the Spaniards" but he is not enough successful with it.

Hoping that the Spaniards will leave Tenochtitlán in peace when the dwellers have no gold any more the Aztecs are throwing all gold into the lake (Huby, p.99).

And now there is one more factor: Smallpox are breaking out. And because of the missing defense in their immune systems the mass death in the native population begins (Reinhard, vol.II, p.51).

Smallpox epidemic in Tenochtitlán Smallpox epidemic in Tenochtitlán [71]

Depiction of scenery in Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún.
A hand
                              infected by smallpox A hand infected by smallpox [72]
Smallpox also emerge in old men's
                              homes in Germany... Smallpox also emerge in old men's homes in Germany... [73]

During this smallpox catastrophe in Mexico Luther is fighting in Germany:

August-December 1920
Germany: Defense against the dictator pope: Luther's scriptures and the burning of the bull
Luther is accepting only baptizing and the supper.
->> this should be the "reformed" church
->> the "principle of scriptures" should count, only that what is written in the Bible
->> "freedom" of belief counts also without the Pope (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231)
->> in December 1520 Luther is burning the ban bull of the Pope in Wittenberg.
With these actions the reformation against the papal world wide power is spreading to widest circles, with them also Humanists like Mr. Melanchthon, Mr. Hutten and Mr. Zwingli (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231).

Many revolutioners against the dictator Pope
Martin Luther, bronze relief
Melanchton portrait

Ulrich von Hutten portrait

Ulrich Zwingli relief
Martin Luther, bronze relief [74]
Melanchton [75]
Ulrich von Hutten [76]
Ulrich Zwingli [77]

But these new "protestant" leaders were never uttering any statement against colonialism and against the holocaust which was committed against the natives...

Magellan's expedition:
In September / October 1520 Magellan believes having found a naval way passing South "America". But the bay is soon coming out as a mouth of a river and one more dead end. The river is called "Santa Cruz" ("Holy Cross"). [Waesch: Magellan, web28]

From October to December 1520 Magellan is looking for the passage searching the cliffs of the south top of South "America". Magellan is going on with his expedition passing "Santa Cruz" down to a cape which is reached at the "Saint Ursula's Day and day of 11,000 virgins", and therefore the cape is called "Virgin Cape" ("Cabo Virgenes"). Two ships are ordered to search the bay (Huby, p.89).

Two ships are heading forward returning with the message that the way would end at another ocean. Now the fleet is following. Magellan means that he had found the passage on Oct 21, 1520. But what looked like an ocean is only a big lake. Now the crew is again in a rebellion. But Magellan is forcing them on.

After this one there is a second and even a third bay. And the whole month the crew is searching in the name of the king. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]

Return of the supply ship: Suddenly the crew of one of the heading ships is deciding to stop all this. The crew of the ship "Antonio" is putting their captain in chains sailing home. Magellan is looking for the ship for days because this lost ship contains almost all food reserves of the little fleet (Huby, p.84). The supply ship is not found again. Magellan is continuing his trip despite of all. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]

The expedition is in the cliffs during cold and fog (Huby, p.84). The white Spanish sailors are detecting a new vegetation and never known animals before like the "Magellan penguins" and the phenomenon of glaciers ending in the sea endangering the expedition (Huby, p.89).

The Pacific

After 27 days of fight with cliffs and shoals on 600 km of trip the remnant three ships of Magellan's expedition are reaching the open sea on Nov 28, 1520. As the little fleet is reaching the Pacific in a quiet moment and the sea is just so "calm" "laying before us" Magellan is calling the sea "El Pacifico" ("The Pacific"). But the future is catastrophic. The supply ship has left. Soon the sailors will have to eat the leather of the ship's equipment and sawdust (Huby, p.84).

Magellan's expedition is crossing the strait in the south of "America" which is called soon "Magellan Strait" by the sailors.

Having reached on the other side Magellan is sailing along the coast line upwards to the height of today's Valparaiso, then westward crossing the "Pacific". The expedition is 2 1/2 months sailing with hunger, thirst and scurvy.

Then the Magellan expedition is landing on Guam Island [today Mariana Islands next to Micronesia] (Reinhard vol.II, p.46).

Map
                            with Magellan's travel route sailing around
                            the world Map with Magellan's travel route [78]

1520: world map by Schöner, a globe
1520: world map by Schöner, a globe
1520: world map by Peter Apianus
1520: world map by Peter Apianus
vergrössernNorth "America" is existing only as a little island for him... [79]
vergrössernNorth "America" is a little island yet, and near Panama there is a big strait drawn on the map... [80]

Inhalt     nach oben
1520

33. First "scientific" reports about natives

Johannes Boemus
Johannes Boemus: work: Costumi le
                              leggi et l'usanze di tutte le genti
                              ("rights and customs of all
                              populations")vergrössern
Johannes Boemus: work: Costumi le
                              leggi et l'usanze di tutte le genti
                              ("rights and customs of all
                              populations")vergrössern
Johannes Boemus: work: Costumi le leggi et l'usanze di tutte le genti ("rights and customs of all populations");
Venice: Dominico & Alvise Giglio, edition of 1566 [81]

<First published in Latin in 1520, Boemus's popular little tome was an attempt to collect in one place the rituals, practices, and customs of peoples ancient and modern. It was a book which inevitably grew as more information became available as a result of discoveries abroad.> [Penn Library, web15a]

<The fourth book of this translation includes new material on Florida, the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of South America. None of this material is new in any absolute sense; it is liberally cribbed from earlier voyage accounts and chronicles. What this volume allows us to see is how the Indians became part of the intellectual furniture of early modern European observers.> [Penn Library, web15b]

The Codex Bodley is reporting about the Mixtecs in Oaxaca, Cholula, and in Tlaxcala.


Inhalt     nach oben

1521

34.
Magellan's expedition crossing the Pacific - Tenochtitlán sieged - Magellan reaching Guam and Cebu - conversion of the sultan in Cebu - the sultan urging Magellan subduing the Mactanese - death of Magellan on Cebu by Mactanese superiority

At the beginning of 1521 Magellan orders the crossing of the Pacific. The fleet is passing it within 20 days. 19 sailors are dying by scurvy (Huby, p.84). All in all the fleet needs from the "Magellan Strait" to the Philippines 100 days. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]

And during this trip on the Pacific happens the following in Mexico:

Tenochtitlán: Again Cortés is playing the ends against the middle and in 1521 he can return to Tenochtitlán with an army of about 200,000 men. But the Aztecs are prepared and there are several hard fights where Cortés cannot prevail. Again and again he has to withdraw. [Waesch: Cortés, web25]

From January to May 1521 Cortés is sieging Tenochtitlán and is cutting it from it's neighboring towns and from it's allies. [Cartwright, web12]

There are cruelties by the Spaniards and their auxiliary troops intimidating the Aztecs and their allies from the beginning. The Aztec coalition against the Spaniards is braking (Huby, p.99).

And in the same time Magellan is reaching Asia:

Magellan's expedition: In March 1521 the "Ladron Islands" / Guam are reached. Magellan is calling these islands in this way [ladron=Spanish: thief] because the natives seem to "rob without limits". The fleet is taking fresh food and water on board sailing on (Huby, p.84); [ [Waesch: Magellan, web28]

On March 31, 1521, Magellan lets read the first "Holy Mass" on Philippine soil: on an island of the Visayas. The precise location is disputed, presumably this was Limassava. Magellan is making friends with the Datus Kalabo and Siaui. [Payer, web18]

April 7, 1521: Magellan is landing on Cebu. [Payer, web18]

Within a short time Magellan is reaching a more or less colonial treaty with the sultan on Cebu Island. The expedition is staying there for weeks. At the end glass pearls are exchanged for pure gold (Huby, p.85).

Magellan is achieving to convert the sultan on Cebu and his fellowmen. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]

On April 14 Magellan gives to the newly converted woman Juana of a local Cebu ruler Raja Humab-on a statue of Jesus "Santo Niño" made in Flanders. This statue is honored until today every third Sunday in January on the whole Philippines by celebrations. [Payer, web18]

Then the sultan of Cebu is pleading Magellan for help on the neighboring island, Mactan Island, he should subdue a local chief on this little island. Magellan is landing on Mactan Island and sees that he is confronted by a 30 times superiority which is awaiting him in a rowed battle order with spears and shields. Magellan lets storm and shoot. But the balls are bouncing from the shields. Then Magellan is passing aside and is burning down the huts of the Mactanese people hoping that then the Mactanese will give up the battle for saving their goods.

But the Mactanese are reacting in another way: They are always more furious against these whites and they saw that Magellan is their leader. Thus Magellan is stabbed and killed by the spears at the end (Huby, p.85), at April 27, 1521. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]

or:
April 27, 1521: When Magellan wants to land using force on Mactan Island he is killed by Lapu-Lapu, a tribal chief. Later Lapu-Lapu is honored as a Philippine national hero. [Payer, web18]

or:
Magellan is stroke to death in a quarrel between local dukes (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).

[This is the first time when "Christian" sailors have to notice the equality of native enemies. But the western, Europe centered history books are just keeping silent mostly how the sultanates reacted with their populations. It seems that here is hidden something important - perhaps tolerance!]


Inhalt     nach oben

since April 1521

35.
Continuation of Magellan's expedition - again losses between two sultans - two ships leaving - war between Charles V-Francis I - Spanish-native troops sieging Tenochtitlán - pestilence, fire and destruction - reports about the Spanish occupation

Rests of the group of Magellan are passing the group of the island detecting cinnamon trees and palm wine. The crew is exchanging goods getting cloves, nutmegs and ginger (Huby, p.85). On Luzon Island the expedition detects the rice terraces of Bawana which are also called the "eighth wonder of the world" (Huby, p.91).

One more time the expedition is involved into a quarrel between two sultans loosing a part of the crew thus only 115 men are left. Thus the ship "Concepción" has to be destroyed and only the ships "Trinidad" and "Victoria" remain starting to the Moluccas Islands (Huby, p.85).

Under the leadership of Juan Sebastian del Cano the Spaniards are burning one of the three ships sailing to the Moluccas Islands / Spice Islands.
[Ossian: Magellan, web27]

[Tordesillas Line is not reported in any source
Now it seems very strange that there is no indication about the quarrel of the Tordesillas Line if the Moluccas Islands should be Spanish or Portuguese territory now. This had been the main reason for Magellan's journey! But no source is indicating anything. The quarrels between the sultans are more important than the measurements as it seems].

1521 (-1526)
Europe: First war between Charles V and Francis I
(DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237)

[How many human sacrifices this "Christian" war cost?]

Emperor Charles V: an arrogant war head on
                      the horse, Emperor or the "Holy Roman
                      Empire"
Emperor Charles V: an arrogant war head on the horse, Emperor or the "Holy Roman Empire" [82]

Tenochtitlán: Now the brigantine ships are coming in the end of April 1521 blocking the dams. Some ships go to Tlatelolco clocking the town, thus all supplies for Tenochtitlán are blocked. The town should be starved out.

Cortés' army consists of
-- 86 riders with horses
-- 118 crossbow hunters and soldiers with muskets ("musketeers")
-- 700 swordsmen with shield and sword
-- 1,000s of native allies.

The army is parted into three parts. These parts are marching around the lake and attacking villages independently. The three parts then are heading their attacks against Tlacopan, Coyoacan, and Itztapalapa and also against tribes of towns where the collaboration with Tenochtitlán is going on yet. Fresh water supply by the aqueduct (Chapultepec viaduct) is interrupted. As a consequence 50,000 Aztecs in Tenochtitlán are dying by the consumption of salty water then. [Cartwright, web12]

On May 31, 1521 the army of Cortés begins with the complete siege of Tenochtitlán (Huby, p.99).

One source also reports pestilence:

In 1521 Tenochtitlán is surrendering because pestilence has broken out (1/3 of the population was affected) in combination with hunger and then to the Spanish soldiers. [Jestrabek, web03]

Other sources report smallpox:

The siege is tightened, districts and dams are destroyed by using stones:

"Cutting Tenochtitlán from it's surroundings was reinforcing the siege of Cortés up to the Aztec Capitol State House. There was only little resistance yet. The big part of the population had died by smallpocks which were introduced in Tenochtitlán by one of the men of Narvaez.

Some days later after having bombarding the town Cortés changed his strategy attacking one district after the other destroying and burning them. The quarry stones fell into the water and new dams were built in this way. The Spaniards were withdrawing in the night and continued with their destructive work during the day. Cortés hat over 100,000 native allies and in this way he was strong enough to destroy three districts of Tenochtitlán."
[Cartwright, web12]

The attack of the Spanish and native allied troops against Tenochtitlán
A plan of
                            the town of Tenochtitlán with the different
                            districts
A plan of the town of Tenochtitlán with the different districts [83]
Attack of
                              Cortés' army by brigantine ships
                              destroying the fortification walls
Attack of Cortés' army by brigantine ships destroying the fortification walls [84]

Depiction of scenery in the Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún

In June 1521 the army of Cortés has penetrated Tenochtitlán. The Aztecs are resisting bitterly. The army of Cortés has to fight street by street arduously (Huby, p.99).

On August 13, 1521, finally Cortés is ordering the frontal attack with all means against Tenochtitlán and it's reduced defense force. After two months and 100,000 of deads the Aztec capital is finished in flames and with it the Aztec Empire. The Spaniards don't know any mercy any more burning down everything.
[Waesch: Cortés, web25]


Depictions of the frontal attack

Historic details as described above are not important because just a "Christian" victory is described...
http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20350--Theme%209--Final_conquest_and_siege_of_teno.htm (April 2005)

The remnants of the Aztecs resisting yet are breaking down not fleeing to Cuauhtemoc to Tlatelolco offering their last resistance, but also this last town is falling.
[Cartwright, web12]

"Christian" reports are
                            judging about Tenochtitlán: "The
                            destruction of images of other gods",
                            or one can call it also just a "street
                            battle"
"Christian" reports are judging about Tenochtitlán: "The destruction of images of other gods", or one can call it also just a "street battle" [85]

[People with other beliefs will call the "Christians" as non-believers...]

Tenochtitlán: The gold has gone!

There is the rumor now that the Aztecs had thrown all gold from the royal treasure into the lake where it cannot be found any more. The Aztec warriors are just shouting and provoking the Spanish soldiers with the word of "oro, oro!" ["gold, gold"] showing again and again to the lake (Huby, p.99).

August 1521 (or beginning of September; Huby, p.99)
Tenochtitlán: capture of the leader of Cuauhtémoc
[Encarta: Cortés, web26]

"When Cuauhtemoc wanted to flee on a canoe then he was captured on the lake. Now the Spaniards had won. This last siege had lasted from June to August - 75 days. The destruction of Tlatelolco and Tenochtitlán was absolutely rigorous so Cortés ordered to leave the towns."
[Cartwright, web12]

and:
<When the Spaniards conquered Tenochtitlán they threw the "sun stone" out of the temple on the central square (today's Zócalo). As the sun stone was worshipped on without limits the Spaniards let bury the "sun stone".>
(original in German:
"Als die Spanier Tenochtitlán eroberten, schmissen sie den "Sonnenstein" aus dem Tempel auf den Hauptplatz (den heutigen Zócalo). Da der Sonnenstein aber weiter angebetet wurde, liessen die Spanier den "Sonnenstein" vergraben.") [A.Baumann, web11a]

Aztec sun stone (calendar stone)
This is the Aztec sun stone
                            with the names of the days of the Aztec
                            calendar
This is the Aztec sun stone with the names of the days of the Aztec calendar [86]



The original of the sun stone of the
                              Aztecs
The original of the sun stone is in the National Anthropological Museum in Mexico City (Museo Nacional de Antropología) [87]

Since July 1521 Cortés lets search the lake for the sunk royal treasure (Huby, p.99). Then he lets fill the channels and destroy Tenochtitlán completely. Also the calendar stone is disappearing in the rubble (Huby, p.109).

Cortés is the successor of the Aztec "Three Towns Alliance" governing over 300,000 km2 appr. now (Reinhard, vol.II, p.52).

Over 200,000 Aztecs have fallen in the fight by pestilence, hunger and thirst (Huby, p.99).

or:

->> of about 350,000 inhabitants in Tenochtitlán about 50,000 survived the Spanish occupation
[Cartwright, web12]

->> but now the royal treasure is not present any more

->> Chuauhtémoc is tortured now, at the end his feet are burnt, but he cannot give more information that the treasure is in the lake (Huby, p.99).

"Christian" and native reports

The reports about Tenochtitlán to Madrid are the followings:

-- there are reports by Cortés himself
-- there are reports by Bernal Diaz del Castillo: "Historia verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España" ["True story about the conquest of New Spain"]
-- there is a report of chaplain Francisco Lopez de Gómara: "Historia General de las Indias" ("General History about the Indies") part 2
-- and there are sources from the natives of the tribes being at enmity in:
M.León Portilla: El reverso de la conquista. Relaciones aztecas. mayas e incas ["The reverse side of the conquest. The connections of the Aztecs, Mayas and Incas"]; Mexico 1964.

->> and only in these native sources the cultural misunderstandings are detected:

-- the Aztecs were believing at the Quetzalcoatl myth
-- the Aztecs did not understand why the whites were not eager for the precious feather words but for the less worth gold
-- the Aztecs did not understand why the whites killed in the fight instead of making hostages for performing sacrifices
[but war and world dominance is the "Christian" purpose of sacrificing!]

-- the Aztecs did not understand why the whites did not also wait for the cosmic catastrophe.

->> so at the moment of the appearance of Cortés the Aztecs were inhibited and helpless and therefore Cortés and his killers had an easy game "in the name of the king" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.52) [whereas he was not at all acting in the name of the king!]

Tenochtitlán is leveled to the ground. And Cortés lets rebuild the town as Mexico City in a Spanish colonial style. New settlers from Spain are reaching the country thus Mexico City becomes the capital of whole "America". [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

Cortés, greedy for gold and
                            destructive, is inspiring the artists until
                            today for crazy masks like here for example Cortés, greedy for gold and destructive, is inspiring the artists until today for crazy masks like here for example [88]
The
                            situation of today: ruins in Mexico City
                            next to "Christian" stony
                            architecture The situation of today: ruins in Mexico City next to "Christian" stony architecture [89]

[And for the new Spanish houses there remains the question: Who was working with the stones? Where stones taken from the lake which had fallen into the lake before or were new stones brought to the town? Was there a compensation?]

The
                            feather crown of Moctezuma The feather crown of Moctezuma [90]

The feather crown of Moctezuma is taken by Cortés being transported to Spain handed over to Charles V. Then the Aztec feather crown of Moctezuma is landing in Vienna in the Austrian Anthropological Museum [90]

Letters of the Aztec representatives to the Austrian government with the appeal to hand back this feather crown or execute an exchange are for nothing.
(see: http://deliberate.com/aztec/ (April 2005). According to the law of nations it would be only right and proper to give back this feather crown).

Copy
                            of the feather crown in Mexico City Copy of the feather crown in Mexico City [91]

In Mexico City in the Anthropological Museum only a copy of the feather crown is allowed.

Supplement:
During all these years there is the total holocaust going on on Cuba against the natives with expulsions, forced relocations, work in quarries, transporting stones and building stony houses and churches for the whites in the name of "Jesus" with thousands of dead victims with the natives.

This "Christian" system is also introduced in Mexico. Slavery committed to the Aztecs and partly to other native tribes is simply applied to all other natives when they are not taking their flight or when they are not capable for their defense...


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1521

36.
Luther is outlawed - Habsburg becomes Spanish - Spanish expedition in Florida and to Yucatán - horror pictures about Aztecs - Aztecs were believing above all to nature's symbols - the simulation of Christianity becomes normal - loss and destruction of the native's culture in Mexico - Luther translating the New Testament - Portuguese ships fighting the Magellan expedition

Worms: Luther is allowed to be present at the National Council (Reichstag) in Worms (also called "Diet of Worms"). But Luther is making his speeches in vain on this council also when he is referring to the "Holy Book". He cannot prevail and is outlawed by Charles V by the Edict of Worms (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231)

[Well, at the same time the Catholics make their occupations in "America" and there is no reason for giving in...]

And Emperor Charles V is getting the guarantee of Germany for help against France ("Reichshilfe") (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

Habsburg becoming Spanish: Charles V is giving the power over Habsburg hereditary lands to his brother Ferdinand (1503-1564) founding the Austrian line of the dynasty (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

Mexico: Spanish expedition to Yucatán
under Poncé de León (Reinhard, vol. II., p.47)

"Florida": Juan Ponce de León is returning once again to "Florida". But he is injured by natives and brought to Cuba where he is soon dying. Ponce de León is buried in the cathedral of San Juan in Puerto Rico. [Ossian: Leon, web31]

Tenochtitlán: Since 1521 Spanish priests are spreading horror pictures about the Aztecs. Also here the history is written by the winners - above all by the few priests who can write:
-- Moctezuma was murdered by his own men
-- in general the Aztecs are reported having waded in the blood of their human sacrifices

These are just deliberately spread history lies - by the priests - following the orders of the conquerers:
-- there are depictions of heads - serving to the Aztec calendar - and now there is the lie that these would be cranes from human sacrifices
-- Aztec urns with seeds should have been alleged cooking pots of cannibals.

So with the military occupation of Mexico the war is not ended but now the cultural calumny is following. [Jestrabek, web03]

[But what is right now? To me the "Christian" glorification of wars in the whole world seems to me the most dreadful sacrifice rite. How many persons have died during wars for "Christianity" already? 200 million perhaps?]

The cultural holocaust against the Mexican natives

Since 1521 the complete culture of the Aztecs is systematically destroyed being called a "work of the devil":

The clerics let destroy the Aztec culture systematically. Old scriptures and cultural objects were systematically destroyed by the priests calling them "works of the devil". The quotations:

<Der militärischen Eroberung Mexikos folgte so die kulturelle Demütigung. hierzu - und dies war vor allem das Geschäft der Pfaffen - wurde die aztekische Kultur planvoll zerstört. Alte Schriften und Kultgegenstände wurden von Priestern als "Werke des Teufels" systematisch vernichtet.>

<The military conquest of Mexico was followed by the cultural humiliation - and this was above all the business of the clerics - the Aztec culture was systematically destroyed. All scriptures and cultural objects were systematically destroyed by the priests calling them "works of the devil."> [Jestrabek, web03]

And:

<Dabei hatten die Azteken gar keinen persönlichen Götterglauben. Sie straften sogar bisweilen ihre göttlichen Symbole. Sie kannten nur einen pantheistischen Glauben an Natursymbole. Der zeitgenössische Azteke Xokonoschtletl schreibt in seinem Buch "Die wahre Geschichte der Azteken":

"Die christliche Religion wurde dem mexikanischen Volk durch Vergewaltigung, Terror und Mord aufgezwungen. Deshalb haben die mexikanischen Oberhäupter ihrem Volk geraten, den christlichen Glauben vorzutäuschen - damit sie nicht weiterhin gequält und von der heiligen Inquisition ermordet wurden. Doch leider wurde mit der Zeit vergessen, dass dieser Glaube aus Schutz angenommen wurde - und so wurde er zur Gewohnheit - die bis heute anhält.">


<But the Aztecs had not at all a personal belief in gods. They were even punishing their holy symbols of the gods sometimes. They only knew a pantheistic belief to nature's symbols. In his book of those times the Aztec Xokonoschtletl is writing in his book "The true history of the Aztecs":

"The Christian religion was enforced to the Mexican people by rape, terror and murder. Therefore the Mexican chiefs were giving the advice to the population pretending a Christian belief - so they would not be tortured any more or murdered by the holy inquisition. But unfortunately by the time it was forgotten that this belief was only a protection - and in this way it became a habit - lasting until today."> [Jestrabek, web03]

Since 1521 most of native cultures are eradicated and exterminated by the "Christian" Spaniards. Until today there are only about 2 million Maya natives in Yucatán living with their traditional Maya clothes speaking the old Maya language in their homes (Huby, p.99).

Zapotecs in the valley of Oaxaca were "christianized" and are mostly catholic today. [A. Baumann, web09]

During this cruel extermination action of the catholics in Mexico Luther in Germany comes with his new translation of the New Testament:

1521/1522:
Luther: New German Bible translation of the New Testament (NT) the first time in German in a "popular language"
This translation is made in the castle "Wartburg" in Thuringia in central Germany: Luther is saved from "Christian" inquisition by Frederick the Wise from Saxonia. Luther is simply called a "Junker (squire) Jörg". In 1521 Luther is editing his first theological scriptures about his own Lutheran doctrine ("Loci communes") and in 1521 and 1522 he is translating the New Testament according to the Greek original text (DTV history atlas, vol. I, p.231).

[It can be admitted that the Pope did not take earnest Mr. Luther - because there was a catholic world dominance which was lethal for all others...]

And at the same time the Magellan expedition is on the Moluccas:

November 1521
Magellan's expedition: Moluccas - hijacked "Trinidad" or leaking "Trinidad"
The ship "Trinidad" is hijacked by the enemies of the Spanish, the Portuguese. Only the ship "Victoria" can escape and can load one load of spices in Timor and is heading back to Europe home to Spain with 47 Europeans ans some natives. Until reaching the "Cape of Good Hope" 25 men are dying by scurvy (Huby, p.85).

or there is this version:

One of the last ships is leaking and cannot be saved and has to be left thus the Magellan expedition is only with one ship at the end called "Victoria" under the captain Del Cano for the trip home. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]


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1522

37.
Slave rebellion on "Hispañola" and Cuba - Cortés becoming a governor of Mexico - the fleet of France capturing the gold of Mexico - expansion of "New Spain" under Cortés - project of the occupation of Peru under Pizarro - arrival of one ship of Magellan's fleet in Spain

"Hispañola"/Santo Domingo: There is a slave rebellion [Timeline: web33]

Cuba: There is a slave upheaval. [Jestrabek, web03]

Spain, Mexico: Charles V is appointing Cortés as a governor of Mexico.
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.52)

Mexico-Spain-France: The Spanish fleet of Charles V should bring the Aztec treasury to Spain, the 20% which had been robbed in Tenochtitlán for him. French ships are capturing this treasury following the order of the French king Francis I (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Mexico: Under Cortés during 1522 (to 1529) the Spanish troops and their allies are conquering the new empire "New Spain" adding over 200,000 km2 of land. The troops are conquering isolated territories (enclaves) and neighboring peoples in the north and in the south (Reinhard, vol.II, p.52).

Peru: There are rumors saying that Peru would be a "fabulous gold land" called "birú" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55).

Francisco Pizarro is from a lower noble family (called a "hidalgo" [a "junker" or "nobleman"]) and he is coming from Cortés' family also (Cortés is a cousin) - and this Mr. Pizarro has "great" goals:

Until these days he is involved in mining in Panama with Balboas, Davilas and Diego de Almagro. But now Pizarro wants to become a more successful conquerer than Cortés, but he needs more capital urgently for this and is making a group with Davila and a priest who is supported by Gaspar de Espinosa, a royal judge in Santo Domingo and a member in one of the important banker's families of the Spanish Converso groups [Muslims having converted to Christianity] (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55).

Magellan's expedition: The ship "Victoria" is attacked near the Cape Verde Islands by the Portuguese. Only 18 Spaniards can escape. On Sep 6, 1522 the ship "Victoria" is reaching the Spanish starting port of San Lucar (Huby, p.85) with one load of spices, under the captain Sebastian de Elcano and with 18 men of the origin crew (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).

Juan Sebastian de Elcano, sailor with Magellan
Juan Sebastian de Elcano, sailor with Magellan [92]

Elcano is succeeding in bringing home one of the five ships of Magellan's expedition to the starting port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. This is the proof that Earth is round. Evidence provided (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225).

or:
On Sep 9 the ship "Victoria" is reaching the port of Sevilla. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]

The last captain, Juan Sebastian del Cano, is writing to the Emperor Charles V about the successful completion of the expedition (Huby, p.85).

Magellan: He was around the earth anyway
Also when Magellan was not coming back to Spain Magellan has surrounded the earth. He was not making this during one single journey. But on earlier journeys to India Magellan had performed already the eastern way to India even reaching the heights of the "Philippines". Therefore Magellan had sailed around the world already even more than that when he was killed.

Now the whites [stupid whites with imperialist "Christian" belief] claimed they had detected "America" and Magellan is one of the names being put on the top of the list. He was opening the Pacific Ocean for new "research" and trade. [Ossian: Magellan, web27]


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since 1522

38.
Spain: development of the "Conquista technique"

After the occupation of Tenochtitlán - but also before already - Spanish colonialists are performing a certain technique of intimidation of the local population which is becoming normal now, and this tactic is applied by the conquerers "successfully" (Reinhard, vol.II, p.58).

Additionally in Spain is made propaganda for looted goods in "West India" again and again predicting what will be possible to be taken there. Otherwise "colonization" would not work at all:

-- propaganda for "resources" in the country which should be occupied is very important

-- also the names given to the locations there are religious and capitalist key words like "rico" ["rich"], "oro" ["gold"] or "plata" ["silver"] etc.

-- and showing natives in Spain or precious products of the newly occupied countries the "mood for conquest" can be risen more and more in Spain
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.58).

Tactic of the occupation in "America": first to be a "liberator", then follows the destruction of cultures, then follows the net of towns, then follows the submission of any remnant of resistance

-- first there are coalitions with "allies" and the colonialists are considered as liberators

-- then follows the collaboration with the loyal, local mistresses and woman lovers who are adapting into the colonial system without difficulties because they are coming from the authoritarian tribal system and there is no change for them concerning their behavior

-- then the native ruler is taken as a hostage being hijacked for extortions, this maneuver is "normal" since Columbus, also the killing action at the end. With this the systematic intimidation is performed and completed.

Some "certain" conquerors are also applying torture, cruelties and there are even murderous dogs manipulated against humans for intimidation. And then comes the destruction of the culture as a whole, and the "Christian" net of towns is installed:

-- there is the systematic desecration of graves and holy places for the individual enrichment and as a show of strengh of the "Christian God"

-- and then the foundations of the towns with Spanish law are following, this is the real completion of a conquest with the "distribution" of territories and with the enslavement of local tribes

-- then after the foundation of a Spanish town the Spanish "city council" can just take the resolution for new military campaigns and for new occupations

-- and later the Spanish crown - with the union with Portugal - is even claiming the Papal claim for world wide dominance. Equal rights with the local population are never foreseen but are just excluded because of the world dominance too (Reinhard, vol.II, p.58).

Also when for example in 1513 the Spanish Crown is claiming in a "Warning" ("Requerimiento") that the order is the "emancipation" of the natives, when the native would convert and subdue (!) and only with resistance against the conversion and surrender violence is permitted, so this "emancipation" is never given because the white is determinating what happens with the land (Reinhard, vol.II, p.58).

[This tactic for conquering "America" is hardly different from the tactic of the Third Reich for the occupation of whole Europe, and also criminal "USA" applied elements of it in Iraq and in Afghanistan - above all the faked and criminal intimidation tactic].



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39.
Robbery and trade of gold and silver wold wide in about 1520. Scheme

Mr. Wolfgang Reinhard is showing us in his book "History of European Expansion" (original in German: "Geschichte der Europäischen Expansion") vol.I on page 101 a scheme how the gold and silver flow was developing with this new "Christian" colonialism, without showing the death toll of the native slaves of course...

Robbery and trade of gold and
                                silver world wide around 1520, scheme by
                                Michael Palomino, November 2003
Robbery and trade of gold and silver world wide around 1520, scheme by Michael Palomino, November 2003 [93]

Gold is flowing from Mexico and from the Antilles Island in the Caribbean for free to the "Philippines" and to Portugal. Gold is coming also almost for free from Guinea in Africa to Portugal, from Wangara it's flowing to the Mediterranean and to Egypt and to Syria, and it is flowing from eastern Sudan to Egypt and to Syria. Gold is also flowing more or less for free from Southeast Africa, now to India, and from Portugal and Syria one part of this gold is reaching also India. Also from Persia gold and silver are flowing to India. Moluccas Islands are a gold center for gold from Japan, Formosa, from the "Philippines" and from Indonesia. Moluccas gold is flowing also to India. Europe only has silver and copper in upper Germany, in Bohemia and in Hungary which is flowing to Portugal and to Egypt. Without racist colonialism Europe would remain just very poor so...

from: Reinhard, Wolfgang: History of European Expansion (original in German: Geschichte der Europäischen Expansion); vol.I, p.101; edition W.Kohlhamer GmbH; Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne, Mayence (Mainz) 1985.


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40.
History of chocolate in "America", Africa and Europe
Cacao pods (fruits) on a cacao tree
Cacao pods (fruits) on a cacao tree [94]

Cacao tree (Theobroma Cacao) was created in South "America" and in Mexico, and one of the first European "detecting" it was Columbus.
[Bendicks, web22]

The first people enjoying cacao beverages were Olmecs and Maya natives. Cacao beans were precious and were even that precious that they were given as a gift, e.g. for births or religious ceremonies. The first white detectors stated that four cacao beans were worth one pumpkin, 10 cacao beans were worth one rabbit, and 100 cacao beans were worth a slave.

In 1502 Columbus brought cacao beans to Europe, but he did not realize their value nor the value of "xocolatl". The beverage with cacao, cinnamon, anise and corn flour had not a good taste for them. Ferdinand and Isabella called the beverage as a "strange brewery of a tribe". [Aztec Xocoatl, web23b]

or Cortés was the first?

Hernando Cortés was the first bringing cacao beans to Europe where they were planted and mixed with hot water for a beverage. This beverage was considered as a luxury in Europe in the western European royal courts, but it must have had a dreadful taste. Extending the trade it was detected that this tree is growing well also in western Africa, above all in Nigeria, Ghana, and in Ivory Coast. The local cacao plantations there were such a success that these regions are producing two thirds of the whole world wide harvest today yet.

There is above all concerning the taste a big difference between cacao beans from western Africa ad from western India. Beans from western India normally have a tender fruit's taste and are used for chocolates in forms of bars which are eaten as such. Beans from western Africa are used for producing chocolate which is used as a cover for other materials like bonbon chocs or for cakes. By these reasons the chocolate beans from western India are normally more expensive than the others.

Cacao tree can grow up to a height of 48 feet. In plantations there is normally a cut with 20 feet so the pods and fruits can be harvested with long sticks without using a ladder. The pods are coming directly from the stem, or from the thick branches of the tree. Cacao tree is blooming the whole year long and there are 10,000s of pale rose pink odorless flowers. Only some of these flowers are developing the fruits and pods then which are 20cm long and up to 20cm thick having the form of a rugby ball. [Bendicks, web22]

Chocolate makes living:

(Text in German:
<Über den Kakao heißt es in der »Encyclopédie«, daß er heiß macht – Diderot stand voll in der Tradition der Humoralpathologie, die schon Galenos im zweiten nachchristlichem Jahr­hundert propagierte und in dessen Lehren jede Nahrung einen festen Platz und Auswirkungen auf die Psyche hatte. Übrigens: Schokolade kommt von chokola’j, »das gemeinsame Kakaotrinken«.>)


Translation:
<About cacao there is told in the "Encyclopédie" that it is making hot - Diderot was fully in the tradition of humoral pathology which was propagated by Galenos already in the second century after Christ. In his doctrines every food had it's firm place with effects on the mind. Additionally one has to know that the word "Chocolate" comes from chokola'j which means "drinking chocolate in a group commonly".>
[Potato history, web35]

The first commercial cacao loads were coming from Veracruz (Mexico) to Sevilla in 1585. The preparation was secret until 1706 when the chocolate beverage was introduced in Italy and was spread from there also in France. In this way the beverage became popular, chocolate houses were opening in whole Europe and in the "United States" chocolate was produced in 1765 the first time.

In 1828 C.J. Van Houten was inventing the chocolate press. Thus the price for chocolate was falling considerably. But until 1879 chocolate could be bought only as beans or as a beverage. Only Rudolf Lindt was inventing the bar of chocolate which can melt on the tongue. During the First World War producers from the "U.S.A2 invented chocolate bonbons for the army. [Chocolate's History, web23a]


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September 1522

41.
Luther's "September Bible", Luther German, and protestant schooling

In Wittenberg in Germany Luther is editing now an alternative "September Bible" and by new kind of writing and by the distribution of this work Luther is becoming the creator of the new high German written language. Wittenberg and it's university become a center of the reformation, the "German Rome". In catholic German territories Luther's German should prevail only during the 18th century.

Next to Luther were others working in Wittenberg, among others

oo Johannes Bugenhagen: writer of evangelic church and school laws
oo Georg Spalatin: juridic assist of the elector ("Kurfürst")
oo Lukas Cranach: painter
oo Philipp Melanchthon.

Luther was working on with his translation now also with the Old Testament (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.231).

[It seems that the Pope did not take anything serious what Luther and the protestants are doing - until today...]


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1522

42.
Spanish military campaigns against Maya natives and the destruction of the Aztec culture in Mexico - "Christian" Mexico

During the next seven years (1522-1528) Cortés is spending his time creating peace between natives in Mexico and managing mines and farm land:
<Cortez spent the next seven years establishing peace among the Indians of Mexico and developing mines and farmlands.> [Ossian: Cortés, web24]

Maya people was extremely developed

(original in German:
<Die Mayas waren ein ausserordentlich weit entwickeltes Kulturvolk. Sie hatten eine entwickelte Mathematik- Schrift und Astronomie mit einem exakten Kalender. Sie wussten um die Standorte der Sonne und Gestirne. Dies spiegelte sich in der Architektur wie z.B. in der bekannten Kukulkans-Pyramide wieder. 400 Jahre nach deren Errichtung wäre Galileo in Europa fast wegen seiner Erkenntnisse verbrannt worden.

Zudem waren sie [die Mayas] Meister des Feldbaus. Sie legten Bewässerungskanäle und Terrassenbeete an. Das dichtbesiedelte vorkolumbianische Mittel-"Amerika" (schätzungsweise lebten rund 60 Millionen Menschen hier) hatte das Ernährungsproblem gelöst. Zu dieser Zeit - als in Europa neun Bauern einen Nichtbauern ernähren mussten - setzte die agrarische Bemühung eines einzigen Mittel-"Amerikaners" 20 Kräfte von der Feldarbeit frei.>


Translation:
<Maya natives were an extremely developed cultural people. They had a developed mathematic research - they had scripture and astronomy with an exact calendar. They knew about the places of sun and stars. This was even reflected in their architecture as for example with the well known pyramid of Kukulkan. 400 years after it's construction Galileo in Europe had almost been burnt for his science.

Additionally they [the Maya natives] were master of agriculture. They were installing irrigation channels and terraces. It is estimated that in Central "America" before Columbus times good 60 million people were living here and this population was dense and they had to solve their nutrition problem with terraces. In those times - when in Europe nine farmers had to nourish one non-farmer - the work of one farmer in Middle "America" was giving food for 20 people working in other sectors.> [Jestrabek, web03]

Mass baptisms in Mexico

Mexico is hispanized by mass baptisms. For being taught with the "true belief" the most important element was the forced mission. The priests already - who were accompanying the conquerers - were making their propaganda having baptized within one year (1522) 233,264 natives. Another priest is indicating that he had performed only in 1525 400,000 baptisms. Such involuntary mass baptism - being hold in a foreign language - had hardly any deep effect to the affected. The procedure was like this:

-- the natives were shown a picture of Maria
-- then there is a short baptism ceremony
-- and that is the conversion.

Additionally the new "coreligionists" are expelled and killed fast - so they go "to heaven" - that there hardly had been any long lasting effect of such a conversion. Alexander von Humboldt was writing about Mexico at the beginning of the 19th century that "natives would know only the outer form of the religion". [Jestrabek, web03]

Sources about Aztecs: originals and scriptures after the occupation

Antje Baumann tells us:

(original in German:
<Die Azteken kannten keine Aufzeichnungen in unserem Sinne (Texte in geschriebener Sprache). Sie benutzten "Bilderbücher", die sogenannten Codices in meist naturalistischer Bildtechnik. In den Faltbüchern wurden religiöse Gesänge, Zeremonialtexte, Chroniken und Erzählungen, Sitten und Gebräuche und vor allem die Geschichte der Indianer Meso-"Amerikas" dargestellt.

Die meisten Faltbücher wurden von den Spaniern zerstört. Aus ganz Mexiko sind nur 14 Codices von vor der spanischen Besetzung erhalten geblieben. Die meisten befinden sich in europäischen [!] Museen und Bibliotheken.>)


Translation:
<The Aztecs did not know a scripture like us (texts in a written language). But they used "picture books", the so called "codices" with a naturalist picture technique. In those books with folded pages were depicted religious songs, ceremonial texts, chronologies and stories, rites and customs and above all the story of the natives of Meso "America".

Most of these folded books were destroyed by the Spaniards. From whole Mexico only 14 codices have been saved from the Spanish occupation. Most of them can be found in European [!] museums and libraries.> [A.Baumann, web06]

Only about 12 picture books were not destroyed by the Spanish conquerers (Reinhard, vol.II, p.26).

Additionally after the occupation there are reports in Nahuatl and in Spanish:

There are anonymous works:
-- a manuscript of Tlatelolco
-- Codex Cuauhtitlán.

And there are scriptures of successors from old leading classes:
-- by Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc (Mexico)
-- by Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxóchitl of Tezcoco
-- by early missioners
-- by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún (1499-1590)
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.26)

The work of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún

Antje Baumann tells us:

(Original in German:
<Durch den Franziskanerpater Bernardino de Sahagun wissen wir, wie die Faltbücher hergestellt und interpretiert wurden. Er rettete die Faltbücher, die der spanischen Zerstörungswut entgehen konnten. Sahagun hatte indianische Helfer, die Informationen über den Inhalt der zerstörten Faltbücher sammelten. Dieses Wissen wurde dann in neuen Codicen festgehalten, wie z.B. im Codex Florentino. Neben den Bildern kann man dort auch spanische Anmerkungen finden.>)


Translation:
<By the Franciscan priest Bernardino de Sahagun we know how the folded books were produced and interpreted. He was saving the folded books which were not destroyed by the Spanish vandalism. Sahagun had native assists who were collecting the informations about the content of the destroyed folded books. This wisdom was collected in new reports (codices) as for example in the Florentine Codex (Codex Florentino). Next to the pictures one can find also Spanish remarks there.> [A.Baumann, web06]

Mexico: The "new capital" of Mexico

In 1521 the new capital of Mexico City is found on the ruins of the old Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán on an island in the Lake Texcoco. This town is developing itself to a cultural and political center of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and is extending today over the surface of the almost completely dried lake (DTV lexicon, vol.12, p.82-83).

[The base of Mexico City is mud of the lake and therefore the heavy stony houses are always sinking on and on provoking heavy damages with buildings, canalization etc. Churches are sinking, sometimes whole districts are sinking so canalizations are draining backwards suddenly and so on. And smog is crazy in Mexico City because of the position in the basin].

Where was the Aztec main square before is the center of the new town of Mexico called "Zócalo" [in English: socket] (also called Plaza de la Constitución [English: Constitution Square]),
-- with a baroque cathedral with two towers (built in 1573-1667 [is sinking])
-- and next to it is the church "Sagrario Metropolitano" (built in 1749-1769, with a rich facade in a Churri style [also sinking])
-- with a National Palace (Palacio Nacional, built at the end of the 17th century and rebuilt several times), and there is the city hall (Palacio Municipal) erected in 1720-1724).

In the surroundings there are more houses, palaces and churches in the Spanish colonial style (La Merced, Santo Domingo, San Francisco) on the base of former Aztec ruins.

In the north of it there is the "Three Cultures Square" ("Plaza de las Tres Culturas"), the center of a modern residential district where a 8 km long avenue is beginning going up the hills, the "Reformation Way" ("Paseo de la Reforma") (DTV lexicon, vol.12, p.83).

[DTV works are showing one more time their unilateral view of "Christian" culture. Who for devil's sake is preparing and transporting the masses of heavy stones for all these gorgeous buildings? How much slavery and death is in these churches?]


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1523

43.
French-Italian alliance for an own "western way" - Huaxtecs remain undefeated - destruction of the Maya culture under Alvarado in Guatemala - first Spanish expedition in Peru is failing [using the country road]

Florentine merchants from Lyon are interested in a direct silk trade with China. The French king Francis I is presented one of the sailors who should be able to "realize" this: Giovanni da Verazzano, an aristocrat from Tuscany.

->> Verazzano is given the mandate for searching for the western way in the name of France (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Giovanni da Verazzano
Giovanni da Verazzano [95]

In Mexico Mr. Cortés becomes a governor and "general captain" of New Spain. [Encarta: Cortés, web26]

But there is a stubborn tribe in Mexico not being defeated. Data of Antje Baumann tell us:

Mexico: The belligerent Huaxtecs who could not be defeated by the Aztecs completely can also defend themselves against any Spanish occupation successfully and therefore they can save their "culture". They are living at the hillsides of a "Mother's Eastern Mountain Range" ("Sierra Madre Oriental"). Considering the findings, shells and weapons there is the conclusion that they had contact with tribes at the southern margin of the today's "U.S.A.". [A. Baumann, web08]

Holocaust against the Maya natives

In Guatemala there is another Spanish colonialism working under the leadership of Pedro de Alvarado 1523-1527: The bases of the Maya culture are destroyed. [Jestrabek, web03]

Map with the position of
                            Guatemala between Mexico and El Salvador

Map with the
                              position of Guatemala between Mexico and
                              El Salvador

Map with the position of Guatemala between Mexico and El Salvador [96,97]

The town of "Palenque" ["enclosure"]:
The original Maya name of the town is not known. The name "Palenque" is given by the Spaniards with an allusion of a wooden fence which is around the houses of the natives. [A.Baumann, web11b]

And now the big Spanish destruction is going on South "America":

Panama and Peru

In 1523 Pizarro is hearing rumors about a big and rich native empire in the south. Pizarro is organizing two friends forming an expedition for the occupation of the land. The soldier Diego de Almagro is providing the equipment, and the vice bishop of Panama is responsible for the financial matters.

The first trial of Pizarro for an occupation of Peru is ending after two years [using the country road] in a disaster and plight.

See Ossian's text:

<In 1523, hearing of a vast and wealthy Indian empire to the south, Pizarro enlisted the help of two friends to form an expedition to explore and conquer the land. A soldier named Diego de Almagro provided the equipment, and the vicar of Panama, Hernando de Luque, furnished the funds. A first expedition resulted in disaster after two years of suffering and hardship.> [Ossian: Pizarro, web29]

Pizarro, portrait
Pizarro, portrait [98]


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1524

44.
French search for a western way in North "America" without success - Sevilla becoming a monopoly port - Da Gama dying in India - Spanish occupation of Quiche natives - Alvarado becoming a nobleman - Pizarro's first expedition to Peru on the sea - Cortés occupying Honduras

French search for a "western way": The expedition under Verazzano is following the French order searching the whole coast line of north "America" for finding a passage to Asia. There is the result that there cannot be found any passage up to the region of Nova Scotia (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

Later [?] Verazzano is slained to death during a stopover on the Little Antilles Islands during a trip to South "America" and then he is [allegedly] eaten (Reinhard, vol.II, p.47).

This indication seems very strange. Because during this time there were no natives any more on the Antilles Islands...

Spain: Sevilla is becoming a monopoly port for "Western India" and the seat of the "Indian Council", the central administration board for administration, right and church in the occupied overseas territories (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.225).

[But the reality is another one: This Indian Council has hardly any power and cannot stop at all the "wild" Spanish conquerers].

Portugal: Da Gama is sent to India with the title of a "Viceroy of India" and he is ordered to fight corruption and abuse in the royal government. He is dying in the same year yet in Cochin on Dec 24, 1524.

Ossian's text:

<Five years later he was sent to India as viceroy, charged with the task of reforming abuses in the colonial government. He died within a few months at Cochin, India, on Dec. 24, 1524.> [Ossian: Gama, web30]

Mexico: Spanish occupation of the capital of the Quiche natives.

(Antje Baumann: mesoamerika/maya-allgemein.htm (1999; 2014 cannot be found any more).

Spain: Pedro de Alvarado going to Spain
Pedro de Alvarado, who was an Aztec leader before and who is a hispanized leader now, who had occupied Guatemala for the Spanish Crown, is going to Spain:
->> he is separating from his wife Luisa Xicontécatl
->> he is marrying into the Spanish high nobility

+ and he is winning the favor of the Emperor's secretary Mr. Francisco de los Cobos
+ he is appointed a governor and general captain of Guatemala.

Alvarado is coming back to Guatemala to Central "America" as a ruler (Reinhard, vol.II., p.53).

Pedro de Alvarado, ruler of Guatemala
Pedro de Alvarado, ruler of Guatemala [99]

Peru: In the same year there is a first Spanish "expedition trip" under Pizarro by ship...
(Reinhard, vol.II, p.55)

Holocaust in Honduras

1524(-1526)
Honduras is suffering the Spanish occupation under Cortés "for making order under the sent conquerors."

Map
                              with the position of Honduras between
                              Guatemala and Nicaragua Map with the position of Honduras between Guatemala and Nicaragua [100]

The bride of Cortés, Doña Marina / Malintzin, is left home in Mexico and is married there with a Spanish knight, because Cortés has "higher goals" than being married with a native woman (Reinhard, vol.II, p.53).

According to Dr. Nancy Fitch this Mrs. Malinche / Doña Marina did favor the Spanish side during the quarrels with the other cultures, also in Peru.

Malinche / Doña Marina
Depictions of
                            Malinche / Doña marina, important translator
                            for Cortés in Mexico, later also in Peru Depictions of Malinche /
                            Doña marina, important translator for Cortés
                            in Mexico, later also in Peru
Depictions of Malinche / Doña marina, important translator for Cortés in Mexico, later also in Peru [101]
From the Florentine Codex of Fray Bernardino de Sahagún


Inhalt     nach oben

1525

45.
World wide trade net of the Fugger family - Francis I is detained by Charles V - Spanish Moluccas journeys failing - Spanish expedition under Gomez to the coast lines of North "America" - breakdown of the last Aztec resistance and mass baptisms - Spanish subjugation of Guatemala - Incas under Huascar - Spanish "foundations of towns" in Panama - Christianization in Mexico under the Franciscan Olmos - beginning of systematic slave trade

Europe: Anton Fugger is actively involved in world wide trade with merchant's licenses in Chile, Peru, and Moscow (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.215).

Anton Fugger, portrait of a racist and patron
                      of the arts during early "Christian"
                      colonialism
Anton Fugger, portrait [102] portrait of a racist and patron of the arts during early "Christian" colonialism

Europe: The decision in the first war between Francis I and Charles V is in the battle near Pavia with a victory of the Spanish and German soldiers (Pescara, Frundsberg). Francis I is detained (DTV history atlas, vol.I, p.237).

Pavia




Pavia: bridge over Ticino River
Pavia: bridge over Ticino River [103]
Map with the position of
                            Pavia
Map with the position of Pavia [104]

Here in Pavia was the battle field between the two noble fools Charles V and Francis I. Deads and injured are not cited in the reports. This is the "Christian" kind of rite... [104]

Spain-Mexico-Moluccas: The Spanish trial of repeating a journey to the Moluccas Islands is failing. The Spanish trial to reach the Moluccas Islands from Mexico is failing too (Reinhard, vol.II, p.46).

Map with the "Pacific"
                              between Mexico and the
                              "Philippines" and Maluccas
                              Islands
Map with the "Pacific" between Mexico and the "Philippines" and Maluccas Islands [105]

The connection between Mexico (right) and the "Philippines" and the Moluccas Islands (left below) is the next goal of Spanish capitalist colonialism [105].

North "America": There is an expedition under captain Estévan Gomez along the complete coast line between Maine and Saint Lawrence River (Reinhard, vol.II, p.48).

Mexico: Collapse of the Aztec resistance. [A.Baumann, web07]

Mexico: "Christians" are going on with more mass baptisms. [Jestrabek, web03]

And people being watched by secret practicing of "superstition" will be hanged as a bad example. "Christians" installed their dictatorship with inquisition and spying without end for this. [Chuchiak, web36]
 
Guatemala: Spanish occupation of the highlands of Guatemala
(DTV lexicon, vol.11, p.332)
[with the surrender of all other Maya natives, cultural destruction and forced relocation forming villages, therefore more illnesses are provoked next to all the virus and forced labor which the Spaniards were preparing for the natives in those times...]

Mayas in Guatemala
Maya natives in Guatemala:
                            mother and child with a traditional dress
Maya natives in Guatemala: mother and child with a traditional dress
Maya natives in Guatemala:
                            child with a traditional dress
Maya natives in Guatemala: child with a traditional dress
Maya natives in Guatemala:
                            boy selling articrafts in the street
Maya natives in Guatemala: boy selling articrafts in the street
[106]

Peru, Inca: Beginning of the government of Huascar. [A. Baumann, web10]

Panama: Around 1525 five new Spanish towns are "founded" in Panama (Reinhard, vol.II, p.49-50).

Mexico: A short time after the occupation of the Huaztec territory the colonization process of "New Spain" is also going on here. Aztec Oxitipa is in the hands of Cortés and Nuño de Guzmán. "Christianization" of the Huaztec territory is performed under Franciscan "brother" Andrés de Olmos.

Since 1525 there is a systematic slave trade installed between Africa and "America". [Jestrabek, web03]

[For this slave trade was only one reason: The natives of Central and South "America" were partly exterminated already. And there were also geographically no limits any ore because the coast lines between Africa and "America" were known now just very precisely and the coast lines were long enough so every European colonial power got a place for a military base there].
1525: world map of Salviati with eastern coast lines of South "America"
World map of Salviati with eastern coast
                      lines of South "America"
vergrössern World map of Salviati with eastern coast lines of South "America" [107]


Inhalt     nach oben

1526

46.
New war between Charles V and Francis I - Spanish settlements in North "America" - defense of Maya natives on Yucatán peninsula - second expedition at the Peruvian coast line under Pizarro - Luther's "German Mass", pastors are allowed to have children - Spanish expedition at "Silver River" ("Rio de la Plata") - Parana and Paraguay River

Europe: Francis I has to give up territories in the "peace of Milan": Milan, Genoa, the duchy of Burgundy and Naples.

Francis I is liberated, then he is revoking the conditions of the peace agreement and is making a coalition with the Pope Clement VII, with Milan, with Florence, and with Genoa, forming the "Holy League of Cognac" provoking a second war against Spain (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.237).

North "America": Spanish expeditions are leaving Hispañola for installing settlements in the today's North Carolina but these settlements are not existing for a long time (Reinhard, vol. II, p.47).

Yucatán 1526 (-1545): Francisco de Montejo concluded a treaty with Spain for the occupation of the Yucatan Peninsula. But the surrender is not going on as fast as awaited because the autonomous Maya states are organizing it's defense each and strongly against the intruders (Reinhard, vol.II, p.54). .

Yucatan: impressions of the Maya natives


Yucatan Peninsula: Mayan Beach
                              Garden
Yucatan Peninsula: Mayan Beach Garden [108]


Map of Yucatan Peninsula with Mayan
                            beach gardens
Map of Yucatan Peninsula with Mayan beach gardens [109]
Yucatan: Chetumal:
                            exhibition of traditional clothes of the
                            Maya
Yucatan: Chetumal: exhibition of traditional clothes of the Maya [110]
Yucatan: Maya natives with
                              traditional clothes Yucatan: Maya natives with
                              traditional clothes, here mother with
                              children

Yucatan: Maya natives with traditional clothes [111, 112]
Maya house with a thatch roof
Maya house with a thatch roof [113]

    Maya street merchant
                              presenting textiles
Maya street merchant presenting textiles [114]

A Maya girl at an entrance
                            of a house
A Maya girl at an entrance of a house [115]

Peru: During his second expedition Pizarro is capturing a trade raft and is visiting the town of Tumbes.
->> now Pizarro gets the impression of richness which can be plundered

->> 3 natives are detained and educated as translators and interpreters (Reinhard, vol.II, p.55)

->> Pizarro is sending Almagro back to Panama for organizing reinforcement. Pizarro himself and a part of the group can maintain the occupation of an island

->> instead of sending more help for more fights Almagro is sending more ships for a coming home of the expedition. But Pizarro is rejecting any return and now he is putting the ask of confidence finding 13 people who want to fight with him

->> and the rest of Pizarro's expedition gets a ship of Almagro. Now Pizarro is going on "searching" the coast line of Peru. [Ossian: Pizarro, web29]

Luther: Luther is inventing the "German mass" in German language as a first base for an evangelic divine service. Pastors are allowed to marry and are allowed to have children (DTV history atlas vol.I, p.235).

Spain is undertaking an expedition from 1526 to 1529 under Sebastiano Caboto at the "Silver River" ("Rio de la Plata"), at Parana River and at Paraguay River (Huby, p.58).

Caboto is searching for a passage to the Pacific and is searching the rivers "Rio de la Plata", Parana River and Paraguay River. The whole expedition is lasting about three years and the sailors cannot find any passage "for India". [Ossian: Cabot, web32]

Sebastiano Caboto, Spanish colonialist in
                    Brazil and Argentina
Sebastiano Caboto, Spanish colonialist in Brazil and Argentina [116]

1526: world map of Franciscus Monachus
1526: world map of Franciscus
                              Monachus with a strong connection between
                              "America" and Asia
vergrössernHere one can see the thesis of a broad continental connection between "America" and Asia [117]
1526: world map of Juan Vespucci
1526: world map of Juan Vespucci with
                              a strong connection between
                              "America" and Asia
vergrössern Here one can see the thesis of a broad continental connection between "America" and Asia [118]


Epilogue

Did anybody say anything about compensation?

Did Vatican give a compensation to the natives some times?

With a trip and an "excuse" this holocaust is not compensated...

This American Holocaust and all cultural destruction is finding it's continuation: in Peru.

The rifle of the white man is shooting free it's way...

and all humans who are not wearing clothes are not considered as human beings...


Inhalt     nach oben
<<       >>




Sources

[web01] Reinhard, Wolfgang: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion.
- Bd.I: Die Alte Welt bis 1818. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart/Berlin/Köln/Mainz 1983
- Bd.II: Die Neue Welt. Verlag W.Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln, Mainz. Verlagsort: Stuttgart, 1985
 
[web02] Huby, Felix. Traumreisen; Auf den Spuren grosser Entdecker. Deutscher Bücherbund GmbH, Stuttgart, Hamburg, München, 1980

[web03] H.Jestrabek: Konquistadoren, Kapital und Kirche: http://ourworld.compuserve.com (1999); http://jestrabek.homepage.t-online.de/amerika.htm (2014).

[web04] DTV history atlas vol.I

[web05] Antje Baumann: Azteken - die Blütezeit ihres Reiches: mesoamerika/azteken-hoehepunkt.htm (1999);
http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/aztek/aztek-hoch.htm (2014
)

[web06] Antje Baumann: Azteken: Die Schrift: mesoamerika/azteken-schrift.htm (1999); neu: http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/aztek/aztek-schrift.htm (2014)
[web07] Antje Baumann: Zeittafel der Azteken: mesoamerika/azteken-zeittafel.htm (1999); new: http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/aztek/aztek-zeit.htm (2014)
[web08] Antje Baumann: Die Kultur der Huaxteken: mesoamerika/huaxteken.htm; new: http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/huaxtek/ (2014)
[web09] Antje Baumann: Die Kulturen der Zapoteken: mesoamerika/zapoteken.htm (1999); http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/mixzapo/index.htm (2014).
[web10] Antje Baumann: Inka-Zeittafel: http://www.indianer-welt.de/sued/inka/inka-zeit.htm (2014)
[web11a] Antje Baumann: Referat: Azteken 1: http://www.indianer-welt.de/referate/ref-aztek1.htm (2014)
[web11b] Antje Baumann: mesoamerika/maya-palenque.htm (1999); new: Maya-Palenque: http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/maya/maya-palenque.htm (2014)

[web12] Internet: R.S.Cartwright: Kolumbus, Cortez, the Aztec, & the Quincentennial (estate 1999; in 2014 disappeared)

[web13] Encyclopaedia: what-means.com: http://www.what-means.com/encyclopedia/Cholula (April 2005; in 2014 disappeared)
[web14a] Penn Library: Cortés map: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/cortes1.html (April 2005)
[web14b] Penn Library: Cortés map: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/cortes2.html (April 2005)
[web15a] Penn Library: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/viewers/boemus1.html (April 2005; in 2014 disappeared)
[web15b] Penn Library: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/viewers/boemus2.html (April 2005; in 2014 disappeared)
[web 16] Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography;
http://www.theaha.org/Tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/keywords.htm  (April 2005); http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/nehaha/conquest.html (2014)
[web17] Dr. Nancy Fitch: http://www.theaha.org/Tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/malinche.html (April 2005)
[web18] Payer, Margarete: Chronology about the Philippines (original German: Chronik zur Geschichte der Philippinen):
http://machno.hbi-stuttgart.de/_payer/weltw43.html (1999); http://www.payer.de/hbiweltweit/weltw43.html (2014)

Horses
[web19] Internet: Museum of the Horse: http://www.imh.org/imh/kyhpl2b.html#xtocid1656030 (April 2005)
new not so detailed any more: http://imh.org/exhibits/online/spanish-return-equus-its-prehistoric-home (2014)
[web20] The international History of The Horse: http://www.imh.org/imh/kyhpl2b.html (2005; in 2014 disappeared)
[web21] Rick Parker: Equine Science; http://www.cengagebrain.com.au/content/9781133892540.pdf, p.14 (2014)

Chocolate
[web22] Bendicks: The History of Chocolate: http://www.bendicks.co.uk/history/chocolate.html (April 2005, in November 2005 disappeared)
[web23a] Chocolate's History: http://www.finestwine.com/English/chocolate_cocoa.asp (2005; cannot be found in 2014 any more).
[web23b] The Aztec Xocoatl, the Spanish Chocolatl, the English Chocolate: http://www.livejournal.com/~kiad/ (April 2005)

Persons

Cortés:
[web24] R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Hernando Cortez: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7012/bios/index.htm (1999)
new: Rob Ossian's Pirate's Cove (not so detailed any more): http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/cortez_hernando.htm (2014).
[web25] M. Waesch: Hernando Cortez; http://www.michael-waesch.de/cortez/cortez.htm (1999; in 2014 disappeared)
[web26] Encarta Online Concise: article: Cortés, Hernán: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761561161/Cort%C3%A9s_Hern%C3%A1n.html (April 2005; in 2014 disappeared)

Magellan
[web27] R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Ferdinand Magellan: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7012/bios/index.htm (1999)
new: Rob Ossian's Pirate's Cove (not so detailed any more): http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/magellan_ferdinand.htm (2014)
[web28] M.Waesch: Ferdinand Magellan: http://www.michael-waesch.de/eroberer/magellan.htm

Pizarro
[web29] R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Francisco Pizarro: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7012/bios/index.htm (1999);
new: Rob Ossian's Pirate's Cove (not so detailed any more): http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/pizarro_francisco.htm (2014)

Vasco da Gama
[web30] R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Vasco da Gama: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7012/bios/index.htm (1999)
new: Rob Ossian's Pirate's Cove (not so detailed any more):  http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/gama_vasco_da.htm (2014)

Ponce De Leon
[web31] R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: Juan Ponce De Leon: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7012/bios/index.htm (1999)
Rob Ossian's Pirate's Cove: http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/ponce_juan_de_leon.htm (2014)

John Cabot
[web32] R.H.Ossian: Pirate King's Library: John Cabot & Sebastian: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7012/bios/index.htm (1999)
new: Rob Ossian's Pirate's Cove (not so detailed any more): http://www.thepirateking.com/bios/cabot_john.htm (2014)

[web33] Bilingual timeline of Northamerica: http://www2.uah.es/asi/timeline/1500.htm (April 2005)
[web35] Potato history (German: Kartoffel-Geschichte): http://www.kartoffel-geschichte.de/Erste_Furche/Bei_den_Flamen/bei_den_flamen.html
[web36] book of John F. Chuchiak: The Inquisition in New Spain, 1536-1820. A Documentary History;
Amazon: http://www.amazon.de/The-Inquisition-New-Spain-1536-1820/dp/1421403862

Photo sources
[1] Karte Aztekenreich: http://www.everyschool.org/u/westlake/anselmoc/assignments/aztec.html (April 2005)
[2] Karte Route von Cortez in Mexiko: Bryan Pavlovic: http://ntap.k12.ca.us/NTAP_hosted/whs/projects/history/cortez.html (April 2005)
[3] Karte Route von Cortez in Mexiko: http://www.mexicomaxico.org/Tenoch/Tenoch.htm (April 2005)
[4] Diaz del Castillo, Portrait: http://amolt.interfree.it/Messico/spagnolo_storia03.htm (April 2005)
[5] Hernando Cortez, Portrait: http://www.dwayneedwardrourke.com/Pages/path.html (April 2005)
[6] Pferdeverlad auf Schiffe (The international Museum of The Horse (IMH): http://www.imh.org/imh/kyhpl2b.html#xtocid1656030
[7] Totonaken-Indigenas in traditioneller Kleidung: http://www.terra.com.mx/Turismo/articulo/096547/pagina5.htm (April 2005)
[8] spielende Totonaken-Mädchen: http://www.jornada.unam.mx/1998/ago98/980817/fotos.html (April 2005)
[9] Cortez hoch zu Ross: http://www.discoverseaz.com/History/CorExped.html (April 2005)
[10] Azteken-Gott, Goldstatue: http://64.33.60.238/Frederick_Shute/Quetzelcoatl.html (April 2005)
[11] Quetzelcoatl als gefiederte Schlange (01): http://www.peachtails.com/bookmarks.html (April 2005)
[12] Quetzelcoatl als gefiederte Schlange (02): http://elfwood.lysator.liu.se/art/j/ v/jvincent/quetzalcoatl.jpg.html (Stand 2005)
[13] Karte Position von Tlaxcala: http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afbeelding:Tlaxcala_in_Mexiko.png (April 2005)
[14] "Christliches" Baudenkmal in Tlaxcala: http://www.guiadelmundo.com/localidades/29705.html (April 2005)

Popocatepetl
[15] Karte: http://archives.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/ americas/12/20/mexico.volcano.03/ (April 2005)
[16] der Vulkan: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/ Mexico/Popocatepetl/images.html (April 2005)

[17] Tlaxcala, Indigena-Frau und Markt: http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2001/ago01/010806/fotos.html (April 2005)

Jagd und Massaker an Indigenas in Cholula
[18] Dr. Nancy Fitch: http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/nehaha/ballies.htm (April 2005); (historisch wertvoller Link).
[19] Karte von Mexiko mit Cholula: ClubMed: http://www.clubmedvillas.com/indexen.php
[20] Massaker in Cholula, Darstellung: http://www.what-means.com/encyclopedia/Image:CholulaMassacre.jpg (April 2005)
[21] Massaker in Cholula, Florentiner Codex: http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/history110b/cholula.html (April 2005)
[22] Pyramide Cholula: http://www.what-means.com/ encyclopedia/Cholula (April 2005)
[23] Pyramidentreppe Cholula: http://cargnelli.net/perso/julien/olivier/voyage%20papa/voyage%20papa.html
[24] "Christliches" Baudenkmal in Cholula: http://www.catandcharlie.com/cholula.html (April 2005)
[25] Sicht auf Cholula, Panorama: http://www.tactproject.com/countries/mexico/pages/journal/mex8.html (April 2005)
[26] Szenendarstellung im Florentiner Codex von Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: In: Dr. Nancy Fitch; Professor of History; California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/aztec2.html (April 2005)
http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/conquest.html, -> strangers

Tenochtitlán
[27] Tenochtitlán, Darstellung 01: http://www.jms.aps.edu/JMS/Lopez/link1.htm (April 2005)
[28] Tenochtitlán, Darstellung 02: http://religion.mrugala.net/Ameriques/ (April 2005)
[29] Tenochtitlán, Darstellung 03: http://www.humanities-interactive.org/newworld/fact_fict/ex036_12d.htm (April 2005)
[30] Karte mit Tenochtitlán auf einer Insel im See: Antje Baumann: www.indianer-welt.de; http://www.indianer-welt.de/meso/aztek/aztek-kar.htm (April 2005)
[31] perspektivische Sicht von Tenochtitlán im See: http://www.mexicomaxico.org/Tenoch/Tenoch.htm
[32] Karte mit dem Dammsystem von Tenochtitlán: Karine Paquot: http://www.sden.org/jdr/drchestel/ onirocosme/azteques/azt2.html (April 2005)
[33] Reliefkarte der Region Tenochtitlán: http://leonardo.sfasu.edu/ccuadra/33mapazt5.htm   (April 2005)
[34] Tenochtitlán, Tempelbezirk: http://encarta.msn.com/media_461551316_761593151_-1_1/Pyramids_of_Tenochtitln.html (April 2005)
[35] Tenochtitlán, Tempelbezirk: http://www.brownpride.com/history/history.asp?a=aztecs/index (April 2005)
[36] Azteken-Geschenke an Cortez, Darstellung: Mélanie Egalon: http://pedagogie.ac-toulouse.fr/lyc-bellevue-toulouse/calendriers/azteques/moduleA/texte_conquista.htm (April 2005)

Moctezuma
[37] Moctezuma Schokoladenbonbons: http://www.chocolatera.com/espanol/moctezuma.php (April 2005)
[38] Moctezuma Warenhauskette: http://www.hispanousa.com/moctezuma/ (April 2005)
[39] Moctezuma-Bier: http://www.kronkorken4u.de/Laender/Mexico/Mexico02.htm (April 2005)

Azteken
[40] Azteken-Stickereien: Tribal Mall: http://www.tribalmall.com/html/huichol_art.html (April 2005)
[41] Azteken-Indigenas: http://www.a2zlanguages.com/Mexico/mex_history.htm (April 2005)
[42] zwei aztekische Mädchen: http://www.aztecrescue.org/ (April 2005)
[43] aztekische Flöte: http://www.godquest.org/native%20american.htm (April 2005)

Federkult von Moctezuma
[44] Federkrone: http://deliberate.com/aztec/
[45] Quetzal-Vogel mit den langen Schwanzfedern: http://www.sgci.mec.es/usa/quetzal/2003/indexe.shtml (April 2005)
[46] aztekischer Tausch Quetzal-Federn gegen Schmuck: http://omega.ilce.edu.mx:3000/sites/educa/libros/quetzal/html/sec_3.htm (April 2005)
[47] Quetzal-Vogel als Ohranhänger: http://www.leroy-gallery.com/gift.html
[48] Tanz in Mexiko-City mit Federn und Trommel: http://www.glennstevens.biz/mex_city.htm (April 2005)
[49] Wettbewerb im Federkronentanz: http://gnaa1.phpwebhosting.com/pw25pics10120102.html (April 2005)

[50] Tenochtitlán, Karte von Dürer: aus: Penn Library: http://www.library.upenn.edu/special/gallery/kislak/promotion/cortes2.html (April 2005)

Cortez und Moctezuma
[51] Darstellung der Begrüssung: http://eles.freeservers.com/Tenoch/Tenoch1.htm
[52] falsche Darstellung der Begrüssung: University of North Carolina [!] in Pembroke: Lecture Notes: Asian, African, and American Civilizations Before 1500; http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_nonwest_world.htm (April 2005)
[53] Darstellung der Begrüssung, 18.Jh.: http://www.coas.uncc.edu/latinamerican/latinhistory/Colonial/ConqMex/ConqMex.htm (April 2005)
[54] Darstellung der Begrüssung im Florentiner Codex: In: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: http://www.theaha.org/Tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/aztec10.htm (April 2005)

[55] Thron von Moctezuma: http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/bevans/Art446-12-Aztec/WebPage-Thumb.00004.html (April 2005)
[56] Darstellung von Cortez, Moctezuma und Übersetzerin, Florentiner Codex: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/aztec6.html   (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)

Azteken-Herzkult
[57] Azteken-Herzkult 01: http://www.jrbooksonline.com/indians.htm (April 2005)
[58] Azteken-Herzkult 02: http://assassinsfc.com/history.html (April 2005)
[59] Azteken-Herzkult 03: http://www.csubak.edu/~gsantos/cat11.html (April 2005)

Moctezuma
[60] Moctesuma mit Boten: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/aztec4.html  (April 2005)
[61] Moctesuma legt Cortez alle Schätze hin, mit Übersetzerin: http://www.comune.bologna.it/iperbole/amicabr/mostre/ bologna_mondo_oltre_europa/Introduzione/Frameset_Introduzione.htm (April 2005)
[62] Cortez und die Übersetzerin zählen das Gold von Moctezuma: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/aztec11.html   oder: http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/bgold.htm (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)
[63] 1521: Indigenas bauen für Cortez neue Schiffe: University of Charlotte UNCC: The Age of Conquest: The Conquest of Mexico: http://www.coas.uncc.edu/latinamerican/ latinhistory/Colonial/ConqMex/ConqMex.htm (April 2005)

[64] Velásquez de Cuellar, Portrait: http://freeweb.supereva.com/carlo260/velazquez.htm?p (April 2005)
[65] Panfilo de Narvaez, Portrait: http://www.floridahistory.org/floridians/conquis.htm (April 2005)
[66] Pedro de Alvaro, Portrait: http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/pedro-alvarado.htm (April 2005)

[67] Huitzilopochtli 01: http://www.linkclub.or.jp/~argrath/goasu.html (April 2005)
[68] Huitzilopochtli 02: http://religion.mrugala.net/Ameriques/ (April 2005)

Schlacht um Tenochtitlán
[69] Noche triste: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/sorrows.html (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)
oder: http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/conquest.html -> Night of Sorrows
[70] Schiffstyp Brigantine: Historisches: Schiffstypen: http://www.bolitho-und-co.de/histor/schiffe/schiffe.htm (April 2005)
[71] Pocken 01: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/Tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/aztec13.html  (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)
[72] Pocken 02, Hand mit Pusteln: http://www.dr-schoen.ch/index.cfm?haupt11=true
[73] Pocken 03 in einem Pflegeheim in Deutschland: http://www.pflegermanfred.de/Neue_Dateien/Pocken.html (April 2005)

Reformation
[74] Luther Bronzeguss: http://bdeg.sopron.hu/~nme/luther.htm (April 2005)
[75] Melanchton Portrait: http://www.piusx.org.pl/zw/38/index.php?nr=3 (April 2005)
[76] Ulrich von Hutten, Portrait: http://clendening.kumc.edu/dc/pc/h.html (April 2005)
aus: Clendening Library Portrait Collection: http://clendening.kumc.edu/dc/pc/index.html (April 2005)
[77] Zwingli, Profil: http://www.geschichte-schweiz.ch/reformation.html (April 2005)

Magellan
[78] Karte mit der Reiseroute von Magellan: http://www.rumson.k12.nj.us/Deane_Porter/Schoenfeld/ Explorer_project/Magellan.htm (April 2005)
[79] Globus von Schöner 1520: Internet: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/330.html (April 2005)
[80] Weltkarte von Apianus 1520: Internet: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/331.html (April 2005)

[81] Johannes Boemus, erste "wissenschaftliche" Betrachtungen über Indigenas: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/331.html (April 2005)

[82] Karl V. hoch zu Ross: http://www.vivamexico.info/Index1/Cortes.html (April 2005)

Der Fall von Tenochtitlán
[83] Planskizze von Tenochtitlán: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/Tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/tenmap2.htm  (April 2005)
[84] Angriff mit Bigantinen-Schiffen: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography;   http://www.theaha.org/tl/lessonplans/ca/fitch/bbrigs.html (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)
oder: http://www.theaha.org/Tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/CORTES35.htm
[85] Strassenschlacht in Tenochtitlán: http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20350--Theme %2013--Extirpation_of_idolatry.htm (April 2005)

[86] Azteken-Sonnenstein: John P. Pratt: A Native American Easter: How the Ancient American Calendar Testifies of Christ; In: Meridian Magazine, 22.4.2001: http://www.meridianmagazine.com/sci_rel/010328naeaster.html (April 2005)
[87] Azteken-Sonnenstein: Nationalmuseum von Mexiko: http://www.tenochtitlan.com/ (April 2005)

[88] Cortez-Maske: http://www.mexicotravel.net/demo2/index.cfm?fuseaction=article&article_id=105 (April 2005)
[89] Ruinen in Mexiko-City: http://ntap.k12.ca.us/whs/projects/history/tenoch.html  (April 2005
[90] Federkrone von Moctezuma: http://www.ethno-museum.ac.at/ge/sammlungen/namerika/mex1l.html (April 2005)
[91] Kopie der Federkrone von Moctezuma in Mexiko: Nationalmuseum von Mexiko: http://www.tenochtitlan.com/ (April 2005)

[92] Juan Sebastian de Elcano, Portrait: (http://www.mgar.net/elcano.htm (April 2005)

[93] Gold- und Silberhandel, Schema: (aus: Reinhard: Geschichte der europäischen Expansion Band I., S.101)

Schokoladengeschichte
[94] Kakao-Schoten: The Aztec Xocoatl, the Spanish Chocolatl, the English Chocolate: http://www.livejournal.com/~kiad/ (April 2005)

[95] Giovanni de Verazzano, Portrait: "US"-Navy: http://www.nuwc.navy.mil/hq/history/0005.html (April 2005)

[96] Karte mit Mexiko bis Guatemala: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/romance/spanish/219/01prehistoria/mapas.html (April 2005)
[97] Karte von Guatemala: http://www.esperanza.de/geogra.htm (April 2005)

[98] Pizarro, Portrait: aus: Explorers and Monarchs: http://www.netmagic.net/~taz/files/pics/expl_pic.html (April 2005)
[99] Pedro de Alvarado, Portrait: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_de_Alvarado (April 2005)
[100] Karte mit Honduras: http://www.reiseautoren.de/mittelamerika/ mexico/reisefuehrer/marco_polo_yucatan.htm  (April 2005)
[101] Malinche / Doña Marina, Darstellungen: Dr. Nancy Fitch, Professor of History, California State University, Fullerton: The Conquest of Mexico. An Annotated Bibliography; http://www.theaha.org/Tl/LessonPlans/ca/Fitch/malinche.html (April 2005; historisch wertvoller Link)

[102] Anton Fugger, Portrait: http://www.wissen.de/material/wissen.de/specials/schuledesmonats/03michaelimunich/geschichte/index_g_hauptframe.htm  (April 2005)
[103] Pavia, Brücke über den Fluss Ticino: http://www.elbasun.com/galleria/A_D_N_A/index.htm (April 2005)
[104] Karte mit Pavia: The Lombard way to the "Riviera Ligure": http://www.unipv.it/aegeepavia/pr%20SU%20PV.htm (April 2005)

[105] Pazifik-Karte: NOAA Magazine: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/ stories2004/s2170.htm (April 2005)
[106] Maya in Guatemala: http://www.terrain.org/articles/5/obrien.htm

[107] Weltkarte von Salviati 1525: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/336.html  (April 2005)

Yucatan
[108] Mayan Beach Garden: http://www.arches.uga.edu/ ~schomp/yucatan.html)
[109] Karte von Yucatan mit Mayan Beach Garden: http://www.mayanbeachgarden.com/mapYucatan.html
[110] Chetumal, Kleiderausstellung von Maya-Kleidern: http://www.caribemexicano.com/guia/chetumal/trad_cul/ (April 2005)
[111] Maya-Frau in traditioneller Kleidung: http://www.fuegonuevo.com/ espanol/yaxandmaya.html (April 2005)
[112] Maya-Frau mit Baby in traditioneller Kleidung: http://www.cancunsouth.com/ plan_hist_maya.html  (April 2005)
[113] Maya-Haus mit Strohdach: http://www.lithiccastinglab.com/gallery-pages/mayaadobethatchedroofhouselarge.htm (April 2005)
[114] Strassenhändler mit Textilien der Maya: http://www.buecke-info.de/privat/reisen/mexiko/maya.htm (April 2005)
[115] Maya-Mädchen an einem Hauseingang: http://www.d-reizen.nl/voi3/frames/index.do?/rondreizen/mexico_maya/reisbeschrijving.html (April 2005)

[116] Sebastiano Caboto, Portrait: http://brutus.pilgerer.org/besame/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=index&catid=&topic=4 (April 2005)

[117] Weltkarte von Monachus 1526: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/337.html (April 2005)
[118] Weltkarte von Vespucci 1526: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ren/Ren1/338.html  (April 2005)


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