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Encyclopaedia Judaica

Madagascar and Madagascar plans in 1885, 1927, 1937, and in 1940

Legends about Jews on Madagascar island - various Madagascar plans since 1885 - other "Final Solution" with "evacuation to the East" - agricultural development work 1950s-1967

from: Madagascar plan; In: Encyclopaedia Judaica 1971, vol. 11

presentation by Michael Palomino (2010)

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<MADAGASCAR, island off Africa.

Legends and theories about alleged Jewish descent of and influence on inhabitants of Madagascar are current and widespread, but the resemblance of certain customs is probably a consequence (col. 677)

of contact with Islam through trade activities in the late Middle Ages. Various theories and suppositions regarding affinities to the ancient Hebrews were published by a French Lazarist missionary, Joseph Briant, in a booklet entitled "L'hebreu à Madagascar" (English: "The Hebrew man at Madagascar").

Madagascar never had a sizable Jewish population. A few score of Jewish families settled in Tananarive during the French colonial period, but no community was created.



<MADAGASCAR PLAN, proposal for Jewish settlement.

[Plan of Paul de Lagarde in 1885 for bringing Jews from Poland, Russia, Rumania, and Austria to Madagascar]

Like most of the Nazis' devices for treatment of the Jews, the Madagascar Plan had already been conceived by others.

In 1885 Paul de *Lagarde, the well-known German anti-Semitic nationalist, had advocated solving the Jewish question in the East, which he believed had to be colonized by Germany, by deporting the Jews of Poland, Russia, Rumania, and Austria. He preferred the French island colony on the east coast of Africa over Palestine.

[Investigations in 1926 and 1927]

In 1926 (col. 678)

and 1927 Poland and Japan, respectively, investigated Madagascar as a possible solution to the problem of over-population; both dismissed the idea as not feasible.

[Polish commission in 1937 investigating Madagascar - extreme tropical diseases]

Ten years later, in 1937, a new Polish commission was sent to Madagascar to assess if Jews could be forced to settle there. Leon Alter, the director of *HICEM in Warsaw, and Salmon Dyk, an agricultural engineer from Tel Aviv, took part in the mission. The estimates of the commission's leader, Major M. Lepecki, and those of Alter differed widely, but it was obvious that the available area, with bearable climatic conditions, was very restricted and the danger of endemic tropical diseases was considered extreme. This point was specially stressed by the French governor-general of the island, Marcel Olivier, who wrote and spoke publicly against the proposal.

[French foreign minister Bonnet suggesting Ribbentrop Madagascar for the Jews of France in 1938 - German plan shipping 4 million Jews to Madagascar]

Nevertheless, the idea was taken up by the French foreign minister, Georges Bonnet, who told Joachim *Ribbentrop on Dec. 9, 1938, that in order to relieve France of 10,000 Jewish refugees, it would be necessary to ship them elsewhere. According to Ribbentrop, "They were actually thinking of Madagascar for this."

Even before the November Kristallnacht [[Crystal Night]], on March 5, 1938, when the Germans were still considering mass emigration, Adolf *Eichmann was commissioned to assemble material to provide Reinhardt *Heydrich with "a solution of foreign policy as it had been negotiated between Poland and France", i.e., the Madagascar Plan. Thus this project was by no means new when it was again taken up after the fall of France in the summer of 1940. Eichmann prepared a detailed official report on the island and its "colonization" possibilities based on information gathered from the French Colonial Office.

An evacuation plan calling for 4,000,000 Jews to be shipped to Madagascar over a period of four years was added. Eichmann also advocated a "police reserve", a sort of giant ghetto ("Gross-Getto"). The plan was to be financed by a special bank managing confiscated Jewish property and by contributions of the rest of world Jewry. The idea was also ventilated by Martin Luther's department of the German Foreign Office.

The plan leaked out and was published in Italy in July. The *American Jewish Committee was alarmed enough to commission Eugene Hevesi to make a special investigation of the conditions prevailing on Madagascar in order to prove that Jews, like other Europeans, could not be settled there. The subsequent report was published in May 1941. At that time the Nazis were already preparing a completely different "*final Solution".

In August 1940, when the Madagascar Plan was officially endorsed, it was probably meant to camouflage the Nazis' true intentions by means of a smoke screen. The 20-page proposal elaborated a detailed plan for which the consent of even the French could not be attained. The operation, whose code word was "Endloesung", was repeatedly discussed. Only when the extermination program was already well in operation and the German ministries had been brought in on the secret of true "Final Solution", at the *Wannsee Conference, was the Madagascar Plan officially shelved (Feb. 10, 1942) and substituted by "evacuation to the East" [[and to the Gulag, or to tunnel constructioning]].

-- G. Reitlinger: Final Solution (1968), p.23, 49, 79-82
-- J. Robinson: And the Crooked Shall be Made Straight (1965), index
-- E. Hevesi, in: Contemporary Jewish Record, 4 (1941), p.381-94.

[L.Y.]> (col. 679)

<MADAGASCAR: Relations with [[racist Free Mason anti-Muslim Herzl CIA governed]] Israel.

[Jewish education work in Madagascar]

The State of [[racist Free Mason anti-Muslim Herzl CIA governed]] Israel was among the very first (and still few) countries to establish an embassy in the newly proclaimed Malagasy Republic (1960), and, over the years, Presidents Tsiranana and Ben-Zvi exchanged visits and Israel Prime Minister Eshkol and foreign Minister Golda Meir also visited Madagascar. Israel activities in Madagascar include the construction of the first luxury hotel, and agricultural experts have helped to produce citrus and improve poultry breeding and corn production. In addition, about 200 people from the Malagasy Republic have undergone technical training in Israel. Relations between the two countries were close, although the intimate relationship between France and Madagascar cast a shadow over the picture after the 1967 change in French policy toward the Arab-Israel conflict.

[[Racist Jewish Empire from Nile to Euphrates and concentration camps for Palestinians in the desert and constant criminalization of Muslims by criminal racist governed Israel could not be accepted]]


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Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Madagascar
                        plans, vol. 11, col. 677-678
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Madagascar plans, vol. 11, col. 677-678
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Madagascar
                        plans, vol. 11, col. 679
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Madagascar plans, vol. 11, col. 679